| Last Updated:: 04/02/2024

WATER QUALITY


National Water Quality Monitoring Programme (NWMP)

MANDATE FOR WATER QUALITY MONITORING

Government of India enacted the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act 1974 to maintain wholesomeness of aquatic resources. The act prescribes various functions for the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) at the apex level and State Pollution Control Boards at the state level.

 

The main functions of the Central Pollution Control Board are as follows:

* To advise the Central Government on any matter concerning restoration and maintaining the wholesomeness of aquatic resources and the prevention, control and abatement of water pollution.

* To plan and cause to be executed a nation-wide programme for the prevention, control and abatement of water pollution.

* To provide technical assistance and guidance to the State Pollution Control Board.

* To carry out and sponsor investigations and research related to prevention, control and abatement of water pollution.

* To collect, compile and publish technical and statistical data related to water pollution; and

* To lay down and annul standards for the quality of water in streams and wells.

 

The main functions of the State Pollution Control Boards are as follows:

* To plan a comprehensive programme for prevention, control and abatement of water pollution and to secure the execution thereof;

* To advise the State Government on any matter concerning prevention, control and abatement of water pollution.

* To collect and disseminate information related to water pollution.

* To collaborate with Central Pollution Control Board in programme related to prevention, control and abatement of water pollution; and

* To inspect air pollution control areas, assess quality of water and to take steps for prevention, control and abatement of water pollution in such areas.

 

To perform the above functions, CPCB needs continuous monitoring of water quality in the country. Keeping this fact in mind, CPCB has established a network of water quality monitoring.

The water quality monitoring is performed with following main objectives in mind:

* For rational planning of pollution control strategies and their prioritisation;

* To assess nature and extent of pollution control needed in different water bodies or their part;

* To evaluate effectiveness of pollution control measures already is existence;

* To evaluate water quality trend over a period of time;

* To assess assimilative capacity of a water body thereby reducing cost on pollution control;

* To understand the environmental fate of different pollutants.

* To assess the fitness of water for different uses.

National Water Quality Monitoring Programme (NWMP)

MONITORING NETWORKS

The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) has established a network of monitoring stations on aquatic resources across the country. The present network comprises of 4111 stations in 28 States and 8 Union Territories spread over the country. The monitoring network covers Rivers, Lakes, Tanks, Ponds, Creeks/Marine/Sea/Coastal, Canals, Drains, Ground water, STP and Water Treatment Plant (Raw Water). Water Body wise number of locations under NWMP is as follows:

 

Type of Water Body   No. of Monitoring Locations
River 
2021
Lake  
341
Pond   
129
Tank   
138
Creek/Marine/Sea/Coastal 
63
Canal 
65
Drain
60
Ground water
1233
STP
56
Water Treatment Plant ((Raw Water)
5
Grand Total
4111

 

 

STATE WISE STATIONS UNDER NWMP

State

River

Lake

Pond

Tank

Canal

Creek
Marine
Sea/
Coastal

Drain

Ground Water

STP

Water Treatment Plant (Raw Water)

Grand Total

ANDHRA PRADESH

42

3

-

1

6

11

4

33

1

-

101

ARUNACHAL PRADESH

29

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

29

ASSAM

102

6

27

1

-

-

-

64

-

-

200

BIHAR

96

3

2

-

-

-

-

70

-

-

171

CHANDIGARH

-

1

-

-

-

-

3

7

-

-

11

CHHATTISGARH

29

1

1

-

-

-

-

8

-

-

39

DAMAN & DIU, DADRA & NAGAR HAVELI

13

-

-

-

-

-

-

12

-

-

25

DELHI

10

4

-

-

2

-

9

45

6

-

76

GOA

32

9

-

-

3

11

-

10

2

-

67

GUJARAT

67

20

2

1

3

3

-

89

2

-

187

HARYANA

20

3

1

-

14

-

1

29

-

3

71

HIMACHAL PRADESH

142

5

23

-

-

-

-

49

-

-

219

JAMMU & KASHMIR

64

36

-

-

-

-

1

23

-

-

124

JHARKHAND

65

4

4

-

-

-

-

3

-

-

76

KARNATAKA

109

80

-

95

-

-

1

2

-

-

287

KERALA

75

16

2

-

3

-

-

34

1

-

131

LAKSHADWEEP

-

-

3

-

-

-

-

42

-

-

45

MADHYA PRADESH

158

22

12

1

-

-

-

54

-

-

247

MAHARASHTRA

162

-

-

-

-

34

10

50

-

-

256

MANIPUR

41

5

13

-

1

-

-

10

-

-

70

MEGHALAYA

64

7

-

-

-

-

-

13

-

-

84

MIZORAM

46

1

2

1

-

-

-

26

-

-

76

NAGALAND

17

2

-

-

-

-

-

10

-

-

29

ODISHA

128

7

8

-

9

4

4

90

3

-

253

PUDUCHERRY

6

3

-

-

-

-

-

22

-

-

31

PUNJAB

61

3

3

-

-

-

9

46

8

-

130

RAJASTHAN

35

17

1

-

5

-

-

141

-

-

199

SIKKIM

16

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

3

-

19

TAMIL NADU

86

8

-

1

5

-

5

22

16

-

143

TELANGANA

55

50

13

37

-

-

13

45

11

-

224

TRIPURA

38

8

10

-

7

-

-

57

-

-

120

UTTAR PRADESH

115

2

2

-

1

-

-

40

-

2

162

UTTARAKHAND

39

2

-

-

4

-

-

19

3

-

67

WEST BENGAL

59

13

-

-

2

-

-

68

-

-

142

Grand Total

2021

341

129

138

65

63

60

1233

56

5

4111

National Water Quality Monitoring Programme (NWMP)

POLLUTED RIVER STRETCHES


IDENTIFICATION OF POLLUTED RIVER STRETCHES


The water quality data under national water quality monitoring programme for the year 2016 and 2017 is analysed statistically and monitoring locations exceeding the water quality criteria are identified as polluted.


The polluted locations in a continuous sequence are defined as polluted river stretches and categorised in five priority classes based on BOD concentration exceeding to BOD levels >30 mg/l, BOD between 20&30 mg/l, BOD between 10&20mg/l, BOD between 6-10 mg/l and BOD between 3& 6 mg/l.


CRITERIA FOR PRIORITIZATION


The rivers have been prioritized based on the concentration of BOD in five classes from priority I to V. The criteria of each priority are elaborated indicating the concentration range of BOD in mg/l.


Criteria for Priority 1

  • Monitoring locations exceeding BOD 30 mg/l has been considered as it is the standard for discharge of treated sewage from sewage treatment plants and general standard for effluent discharge from effluent treatment plants to rivers/streams it appears without dilution.(River locations having water quality exceeding discharge standards for BOD to fresh water sources)
  • All monitoring locations exceeding BOD concentration 6 mg/l on all occasions.
  • Monitoring locations exceeding 3 mg/l BOD are not meeting desired water quality criteria but does not affect to Dissolved Oxygen level in water bodies. If BOD exceeds 6mg/l in water body, the Dissolved Oxygen is reduced below desired levels.
  • The raw water having BOD levels upto 5 mg/l are does not form complex chemicals on chlorination for municipal water supplies. Hence the water bodies having BOD more than 6 mg/l are considered as polluted and identified for remedial action.

Criteria for Priority 2

  • Monitoring locations having BOD between 20-30 mg/l.
  • All monitoring locations exceeding BOD concentration 6 mg/l on all occasions.

Criteria for Priority 3

  • Monitoring locations having BOD between 10-20 mg/l.
  • All monitoring locations exceeding BOD concentration 6 mg/l on all occasions.

Criteria for Priority 4

  • Monitoring locations having BOD between 6-10 mg/l.

Criteria for Priority 5

  • Monitoring locations having BOD between 3-6 mg/l.
  • The locations exceeding desired water quality of 3mg/l BOD.

NUMBER OF STRETCHES- PRIORITY-WISE : The priority wise number of river stretches are given below:-


Priority
Number of Stretches
Priority 1
45
Priority 2
16
Priority 3
43
Priority 4
72
Priority 5
175
Total
351

STATUS OF POLLUTED RIVER STRETCHES IN INDIA


The assessment of water quality for identification of Polluted River Stretches has found that there are 31 States and Union Territories having rivers and streams not meeting water quality criteria.
The state of Maharashtra has highest number of 53 polluted river stretches followed by the Assam, Madhya Pradesh, Kerala, Gujarat, Odisha, West Bengal, Karnataka Uttar Pradesh, Goa, Uttarakhand, Mizoram, Manipur, Jammu & Kashmir, Telangana, Meghalaya, Jharkhand, Himachal Pradesh, Tripura, Tamilnadu, Nagaland, Bihar, Chattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh, Sikkim, Punjab, Rajasthan, Puducherry, Haryana and Delhi.


Table : STATE-WISE NUMBERS OF POLLUTED RIVER STRETCHES IDENTIFIED IN YEAR 2018

State-wise  number of Polluted River Stretches identified in Year 2018
Name of the State / UT
Total No. of Identified Polluted River stretches (PRS)
Andhra Pradesh
5
Assam
44
Bihar
6
Chhattisgarh
5
DD & DNH
1
Delhi
1
Goa
11
Gujarat
20
Haryana
2
Himachal Pradesh
7
J & K
9
Jharkhand
7
Karnataka
17
Kerala
21
Madhya Pradesh
22
Maharashtra
53
Manipur
9
Meghalaya
7
Mizoram
9
Nagaland
6
Odisha
19
Puducherry
2
Punjab
4
Rajasthan
2
Sikkim
4
Tamil Nadu
6
Telangana
8
Tripura
6
UP
12
Uttarakhand
9
West Bengal
17
Grand Total
351


National Water Quality Monitoring Programme (NWMP)

PARAMETERS UNDER NATIONAL WATER QUALITY MONITORING PROGRAMME


National Water Quality Monitoring Programme (NWMP)

WATER QUALITY CRITERIA

 

Primary Water Quality Criteria for Bathing Waters click here


Designated Best Use Water Quality Criteria


Designated Best Use Water Quality Criteria
Designated-best-Use/ Beneficial Use
Classification of water
Criteria
Drinking water source without conventional treatment but after disinfection
A
1. Total Coliforms Organism MPN/100 ml shall be 50 or less
2. pH between 6.5 and 8.5
3. Dissolved Oxygen 6 mg/l or more
4. Biochemical Oxygen Demand 5 days 20 °C 2 mg/l or less
Outdoor bathing (organised)
B
1. Total Coliforms Organism MPN/100 ml shall be 500 or less
2. pH between 6.5 and 8.5
3. Dissolved Oxygen 5 mg/l or more
4. Biochemical Oxygen Demand 5 days 20 °C 3 mg/l or less
Drinking  water source after conventional treatment  and disinfection
C
1. Total Coliforms Organism MPN/100 ml shall be 5000 or less
2. pH between 6 and 9
3. Dissolved Oxygen 4 mg/l or more
4. Biochemical Oxygen Demand 5 days 20 °C 3 mg/l or less
Propagation of wild life and fisheries
D
1. pH between 6.5 and 8.5
2. Dissolved Oxygen 4 mg/l or more
3. Free Ammonia (as N) 1.2 mg/l or less
Irrigation, industrial cooling, controlled waste  disposal
E
1. pH between 6.0 and 8.5
2. Electrical Conductivity at 25 °C micro mhos/cm maximum 2250
3. Sodium absorption ratio maximum 26
4. Boron maximum 2 mg/l

Water Quality Standards for Coastal Water Marine Outfalls click here


World Health Organization (WHO) GUIDELINES

 

WHO GUIDELINES FOR DRINKING WATER QUALITY

WHO produces international norms on water quality and human health in the form of guidelines that are used as the basis for regulation and standard setting, in developing and developed countries worldwide. The quality of drinking water is a powerful environmental determinant of health. Assurance of drinking water safety is a foundation for the prevention and control of waterborne diseases. The guidelines developed by WHO are prepared through a vast global consultative process involving WHO member states (India is the member state), national authorities and international agencies, in consultation with the WHO Expert Advisory Panel.


Parameters
Standard limits as per WHO guidelines (mg/L)
Acrylamide
0.0005
Alachor
0.02
Aldicarb
0.01
Aldrin and Dieldrin
0.00003
Ammonia
1.5
Antimony
0.02
Arsenic
0.01
Atrazine
0.002
Barium
0.7
Benzene
0.01
Benzo(α)pyrene
0.0007
Boron
0.5
Bromate
0.01
Bromodichloromethane (BDCM)
0.06
Bromoform
0.1
Cadmium
0.003
Carbofuran
0.007
Carbon tetrachloride
0.004
Chlorate
0.7
Chlordane
0.0002
Chloramines
0.5 – 1.5
Chloride
200 – 300
Chlorine
5
Chlorite
0.7
Chloroform
0.3
Chlorotoluron
0.03
Chlorpyrifos
0.03
Chromium
0.05
Colour in drinking water
No visible colour
Copper
2.0
Cyanazine
0.0006
Cyanide
0.07
1,2-Dichlorobenzene
1.0
1,4-Dichlorobenzene
0.3
1,2-Dichloroethane
0.03
Dichloromethane
0.02
2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid
0.03
DDT and metabolites
0.001
Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate
0.008
1,2-Dichloroethylene
0.05
1,2-Dichloropropane
0.04
Dimethonate
0.006
1,4-Dioxane
0.05
Dissolved oxygen
No health-based guideline value is recommended
Edetic acid (EDTA)
0.6
Endrin
0.0006
Epichlorohydrin
0.0004
Ethylbenzene
0.3
Fenoprop
0.009
Fluoride
1.5
Hexachlorobutadiene
0.0006
Iron
No health-based guideline value is proposed
Isoproturon
0.009
Lead
0.01
Lindane
0.002
Manganese
0.4
Mercury
0.006
Methoxychlor
0.02
Metolachlor
0.01
Microcystin-LR
0.001
Molinate
0.006
Molybdenum
0.07
Monochloroacetate
0.02
N-Nitrosodimethylamine
0.0001
Nickel
0.07
Nitrate
50
Nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA)
0.2
Nitrite
3
Pendimethalin
0.02
Pentachlorophenol
0.009
Permethrin
0.3
pH
No health-based guideline value is proposed
Pyriproxyfen
0.3
Selenium
0.01
Simazine
0.002
Sulphate
No health-based guideline value has been derived
Styrene
0.02
Terbuthylazine
0.007
Tetrachloroethylene
0.04
Toluene
0.7
Total dissolved solids (TDS)
No health-based guideline value is proposed
Trichloroacetate
0.2
Trichloroethylene
0.02
2,4,6,-Trichlorophenol
0.2
Trifluralin
0.02
Trutuim
10000 Bq/L
Uranium
0.015
Vinyl chloride
0.0003
Xylenes-total
0.5
Zinc
No health-based guideline value is proposed

References:
Guidelines for drinking water quality, 4th edition, World Health Organization, 2011.