| Last Updated:: 05/02/2016

WATER QUALITY


National Water Quality Monitoring Programme (NWMP)

MANDATE FOR WATER QUALITY MONITORING

Government of India enacted the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act 1974 to maintain wholesomeness of aquatic resources. The act prescribes various functions for the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) at the apex level and State Pollution Control Boards at the state level.

 

The main functions of the Central Pollution Control Board are as follows:

* To advise the Central Government on any matter concerning restoration and maintaining the wholesomeness of aquatic resources and the prevention, control and abatement of water pollution.

* To plan and cause to be executed a nation-wide programme for the prevention, control and abatement of water pollution.

* To provide technical assistance and guidance to the State Pollution Control Board.

* To carry out and sponsor investigations and research related to prevention, control and abatement of water pollution.

* To collect, compile and publish technical and statistical data related to water pollution; and

* To lay down and annul standards for the quality of water in streams and wells.

 

The main functions of the State Pollution Control Boards are as follows:

* To plan a comprehensive programme for prevention, control and abatement of water pollution and to secure the execution thereof;

* To advise the State Government on any matter concerning prevention, control and abatement of water pollution.

* To collect and disseminate information related to water pollution.

* To collaborate with Central Pollution Control Board in programme related to prevention, control and abatement of water pollution; and

* To inspect air pollution control areas, assess quality of water and to take steps for prevention, control and abatement of water pollution in such areas.

 

To perform the above functions, CPCB needs continuous monitoring of water quality in the country. Keeping this fact in mind, CPCB has established a network of water quality monitoring.

The water quality monitoring is performed with following main objectives in mind:

* For rational planning of pollution control strategies and their prioritisation;

* To assess nature and extent of pollution control needed in different water bodies or their part;

* To evaluate effectiveness of pollution control measures already is existence;

* To evaluate water quality trend over a period of time;

* To assess assimilative capacity of a water body thereby reducing cost on pollution control;

* To understand the environmental fate of different pollutants.

* To assess the fitness of water for different uses.

National Water Quality Monitoring Programme (NWMP)

MONITORING NETWORKS

The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) has established a network of monitoring stations on aquatic resources across the country. The present network comprises of 2500 stations in 28 States and 6 Union Territories spread over the country. The monitoring network covers 445 Rivers, 154 Lakes, 12 Tanks, 78 Ponds, 41 Creeks/Seawater, 25 Canals, 45 Drains, 10 Water Treatment Plant (Raw Water) and 807 Wells. Among the 2500 stations, 1275 are on rivers, 190 on lakes, 45 on drains, 41 on canals, 12 on tanks, 41 on creeks/seawater, 79 on ponds, 10 Water Treatment Plant (Raw Water) and 807 are groundwater stations. Summary of the network is as follows:

 

NWMP Network   2500 Stations (April 2012)
No. of Rivers  445 (Total No. of Stations 1275)
No. of Lakes   154 (Total No. of Stations 190)
No. of Tanks     12 (Total No. of Stations 12)
No. of Ponds      78 (Total No. of Stations 79)
No. of Creeks/Sea Water        41 (Total No. of Stations 41)
No. of Canals  25 (Total No. of Stations 41)
No. of Drains       45 (Total No. of Stations 45)
Water Treatment Plant ((Raw Water)   10 (Total No. of Stations 10)
No. of Wells    807 (Total No. of Stations 807)

 

 

WATER BODY WISE DISTRIBUTION OF NATIONAL WATER QUALITY MONITORING NETWORK

 

State River Lake Tank Pond Canal Creek/ Sea water Drain/ Industrial Drain Water Treatment Plant Well Total
ANDHRA PRADESH 54 15 10 10 3 - 16 - 32 140
ARUNACHAL PRADESH 18 - - - - - - - - 18
ASSAM 43 2 1 23 - - - - 32 101
BIHAR 62 2 - 2 - - - - 70 136
CHANDIGARH - 1 - - - - 3 - 7 11
CHHATISSGARH 29 1 - 1 - - - - 8 39
DAMAN, DIU, DADRA AND NAGAR HAVELI 12 - - - - - - - 12 24
DELHI 5 5 3 3 - 10 6 70 102
GOA 28 8 - - 3 1 - - 10 50
GUJARAT 53 21 1 2 2 3 - - 83 165
HARYANA 8 2 - - 11 - - 2 - 23
HIMACHAL PRADESH 58 5 - - - - - - 41 104
JAMMU & KASHMIR 45 25 - - - - - - 12 82
JHARKHAND 31 4 - 1 - - - - - 36
KARNATAKA 61 2 - - - - - - - 63
KERALA 73 16 - 2 3 - - - 34 128
LAKSHDWEEP - - - 1 - - - - 15 16
MADHYA PRADESH 96 19 - 8 - - - - 32 155
MAHARASHTRA 156 - - - - 34 10 - 50 250
MANIPUR 41 5 - 13 1 - - - 10 70
MEGHALAYA 40 7 - - - - - - 7 54
MIZORAM 4 - - - - - - - 2 6
NAGALAND 16 2 - - - - - - 10 28
ORISSA 64 2 - 6 3 3 - - 15 93
PONDICHERRY 5 2 - - - - - 15 22
PUNJAB 38 3 - - - - 6 - 22 69
RAJASTHAN 17 16 - - 3 - - - 87 123
SIKKIM 14 - - - - - - - - 14
TAMIL NADU 45 8 - - - - - - 2 55
TRIPURA 29 3 - 5 5 - - - 21 63
UTTAR PRADESH 64 2 - 2 1 - 2 40 111
UTTRANCHAL 28 2 - - 1 - - - 19 50
WEST BENGAL 38 10 - - 2 - - - 49 99
Total 1275 190 12 79 41 41 45 10 807 2500
National Water Quality Monitoring Programme (NWMP)

FINDINGS

National Water Quality at a Glance

The water quality data on rivers, lakes, ponds, tanks and groundwater locations being monitored under the network is evaluated against the water quality criteria and the monitoring locations in exceedence with respect to one or more parameters are identified as polluted, which requires action for restoration of water quality. The locations on rivers, lakes, ponds, tanks and groundwater not meeting the criteria are summarized ahead.

 

  • The Highest observed BOD Levels in Rivers:

 

Highest observed BOD Levels in Rivers
Rivers
B.O.D. (mg/L)
Rivers
B.O.D. (mg/L)
Vasista
500
Wena
18.6
Kala Amb
185
Tapi & Denwa
18
Sukhana
180
Mula-Mutha
17.5
Mithi
170
Bhima
17
Musi
165
Varuna
16.9
Sarabanga
126
Mula
16.5
Tambiraparani
115
Shedhi
15
Yamuna
113
  & Nira (Godavari)
14.6
Umkhrah
100
Kolar, Pedhi & Amravati (Tapi)
14
Umshyrpi
95
Indrayani
13
Kalinadi East
94
Penganga
12.6
Hindon & Karmana
80
Imphal
12.3
Amlakhadi
72.1
Nira (Krishna) & Sirsa
12
Thirumanimuthar
67
Vindyadhari
11.8
Betwa
64
Churni
11.7
Nakkavagu
64
Gomti & Vel
11
Khan, Bharalu & Chambal
50
Kyrhukhla
10.8
Suswa
46
Ghod & Chandrabhaga
10.5
Ghaggar
43
Sina
10.4
Godavari & Wainganga
40
Gomai
10
Banas
39.9
Urmodi
9.5
Morna
34
Tunghabhadra
9.3
Mandovi
33
Venna, Dhadar & Burai
9
Wardha
31
Beas
8.7
Kshipra
30
Patalganga
8.5
Kundalika
29
Umtrew
8.2
Kalu
28
Damodar, Damanganga, Kan, Darna, Bindusara, Surya, Kadambyar & Arkavathi
8
Satluj, Ganga & Maner
27
Koyna
7.8
Kali Sindh
26.9
Panchaganga
7.6
Purna Tapi
26
Jalangi
7.3
Krishna
24
Girna, Brahmani, Tansa & Sabarmati
7
Nambul
23.7
Ramganga
6.8
Kanhan, Purna (Godavari) & Dhansiri
22
Bhatsa
6.6
Cauvery
21.9
Manjeera & Digboi
6.5
Mutha
20.8
Kaliasot
6.4
Pawana
20
Iril & Kolak
6.2
Matha Bhanga
19.8
Panzara, Kuakhai & Vaitarna
6
Dwarka
19.5
 

 

National Water Quality Monitoring Programme (NWMP)

WATER QUALITY TREND (BOD, mg/l)

Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)


The numbers of observed BOD values less than 3 mg/l were between 57-69% during year 1995 to 2012. The maximum value of 69% was observed during 2007. It was observed that there was a gradual decrease in number of observations having BOD < 3.

The number of observed BOD values ranges from 3-6 mg/l was between 17-28% during year 1995 to 2012, the maximum value of 28% was observed in the year 1998. It was observed that there was a gradual decrease in number of observations having BOD between 3-6 mg/l.

The numbers of observed BOD value> 6 mg/l were between 13 and 19% during year 1995-2012 and the maximum value of 19% was observed in the year 2001 and 2002. It was observed that there was a gradual decrease and in 2012 the percentage observation was 18 % having BOD >6.




National Water Quality Monitoring Programme (NWMP)

WATER QUALITY TREND (Total Coliform, MPN/100 ml)

Total Coliform (TC)


The numbers of observed TC values < 500 MPN/100 ml were between 44-63% during 1995-2012. The highest percentage of observations was observed as 63% in year 1999 which decreases to 50% during 2012.

The numbers of observed TC values ranges from 500-5000 were between 28-39% during year 1995-2012 the maximum value of 39% was observed in 2010. The numbers of observed TC values > 5000 were between 9-24% during year 1995-2012. Minimum value of 9% was observed during the year 1999. The maximum value of 24% was observed in the year 2006. During 2012 it was observed as 14% indicating decreasing trend.




National Water Quality Monitoring Programme (NWMP)

WATER QUALITY TREND (Faecal Coliform, MPN/100 ml)

Faecal Coliform (FC)


The numbers of observed FC values < 500 MPN/100 ml was between 48-70% during year 1995-2012. The maximum value of 70% was observed in the year 2009.

The numbers of observed FC values ranges from 500-5000 MPN/100 ml was between 20-35% during year 1995 to 2012. The maximum value of 35% was observed in the year 1999, which decreases to 21% in the year 2012.

The numbers of observed FC values > 5000 MPN/100 ml was between 7-21% during year 1995-2012. The maximum value of 21% was observed in 2006, which decreases to 10% in the year 2012.


National Water Quality Monitoring Programme (NWMP)

WATER QUALITY TREND OF BOD IN RIVERS


The Water Quality trend of BOD in River Ganga, Yamuna, Sabarmati, Mahi, Tapi, Narmada, Godavari, Krishna, Cauvery, Mahanadi, Brahmani, Baitarni, Subarnarekha, Brahmaputra, Satluj, Beas and Pennar depicting the data from 2002 to 2012.


WATER QUALITY TREND OF BOD IN RIVERS ARE GIVEN BELOW:


GANGA



YAMMUNA



SABARMATI



MAHI



TAPI



NARMADA



GODAVARI



KRISHNA



CAUVERY



MAHANADI



BRAHMANI



BAITRANI



SUBARNAREKHA



BRAHMAPUTRA



SATLUJ



BEAS



PENNAR



National Water Quality Monitoring Programme (NWMP)

POLLUTED RIVER STRETCHES


IDENTIFICATION OF POLLUTED RIVER STRETCHES


The stretches of rivers not meeting with the criteria are identified as polluted stretches and categorized in five priority classes. As the level of BOD varies widely in River stretches the same are prioritized in five categories based on BOD concentration consistently exceeding to BOD levels >30 mg/l, BOD between 20&30 mg/l, BOD between 10&20mg/l, BOD between 6-10 mg/l and BOD between 3& 6 mg/l. The data obtained are analyzed statistically and compared with the water quality criteria with respect to BOD.


The water quality data for the years 2009-2012 is analyzed and monitoring locations exceeding the water quality criteria are identified as polluted locations with respect to risk. The degree of violation is with respect to water quality criteria for drinking water source with conventional treatment with respect to BOD. The polluted locations in a continuous sequence are defined as polluted river stretches.


CRITERIA FOR PRIORITIZATION


The rivers have been prioritized based on the concentration of BOD in five classes from priority I to V. The criteria of each priority are elaborated indicating the concentration range of BOD in mg/l.


Criteria for Priority 1

  • Monitoring locations exceeding BOD concentration 30 mg/l has been considered as the standard of sewage treatment plant and in river it appears without dilution. (River locations having water quality exceeding discharge standards for BOD to fresh water sources)

Criteria for Priority 2

  • Monitoring locations having BOD between 20-30 mg/l.

Criteria for Priority 3

  • Monitoring locations having BOD between 10-20 mg/l.

Criteria for Priority 4

  • Monitoring locations having BOD between 6-10 mg/l.

Criteria for Priority 5

  • Monitoring locations having BOD between 3-6 mg/l.

NUMBER OF STRETCHES- PRIORITY-WISE : The priority wise number of river stretches are given below:-


Priority
Number of Stretches
Priority 1
34
Priority 2
17
Priority 3
36
Priority 4
57
Priority 5
158
Total
302

National Water Quality Monitoring Programme (NWMP)

PARAMETERS UNDER NATIONAL WATER QUALITY MONITORING PROGRAMME


National Water Quality Monitoring Programme (NWMP)

WATER QUALITY MONITORING STATIONS - STATE/UNION TERRITORY

National Water Quality Monitoring Programme (NWMP)

WATER QUALITY CRITERIA

 

Use based Classification of Surface Waters in India
Designated-best-Use/ Beneficial Use
Classification of water
Criteria
Drinking water source without conventional treatment but after disinfection
A
1. Total Coliforms Organism MPN/100 ml shall be 50 or less
2. pH between 6.5 and 8.5
3. Dissolved Oxygen 6 mg/l or more
4. Biochemical Oxygen Demand 5 days 20 °C 2 mg/l or less
Outdoor bathing (organised)
B
1. Total Coliforms Organism MPN/100 ml shall be 500 or less
2. pH between 6.5 and 8.5
3. Dissolved Oxygen 5 mg/l or more
4. Biochemical Oxygen Demand 5 days 20 °C 3 mg/l or less
Drinking  water source after conventional treatment  and disinfection
C
1. Total Coliforms Organism MPN/100 ml shall be 5000 or less
2. pH between 6 and 9
3. Dissolved Oxygen 4 mg/l or more
4. Biochemical Oxygen Demand 5 days 20 °C 3 mg/l or less
Propagation of wild life and fisheries
D
1. pH between 6.5 and 8.5
2. Dissolved Oxygen 4 mg/l or more
3. Free Ammonia (as N) 1.2 mg/l or less
Irrigation, industrial cooling, controlled waste  disposal
E
1. pH between 6.0 and 8.5
2. Electrical Conductivity at 25 °C micro mhos/cm maximum 2250
3. Sodium absorption ratio maximum 26
4. Boron maximum 2 mg/l

World Health Organization (WHO) GUIDELINES

 

WHO GUIDELINES FOR DRINKING WATER QUALITY

WHO produces international norms on water quality and human health in the form of guidelines that are used as the basis for regulation and standard setting, in developing and developed countries worldwide. The quality of drinking water is a powerful environmental determinant of health. Assurance of drinking water safety is a foundation for the prevention and control of waterborne diseases. The guidelines developed by WHO are prepared through a vast global consultative process involving WHO member states (India is the member state), national authorities and international agencies, in consultation with the WHO Expert Advisory Panel.


Parameters
Standard limits as per WHO guidelines (mg/L)
Acrylamide
0.0005
Alachor
0.02
Aldicarb
0.01
Aldrin and Dieldrin
0.00003
Ammonia
1.5
Antimony
0.02
Arsenic
0.01
Atrazine
0.002
Barium
0.7
Benzene
0.01
Benzo(α)pyrene
0.0007
Boron
0.5
Bromate
0.01
Bromodichloromethane (BDCM)
0.06
Bromoform
0.1
Cadmium
0.003
Carbofuran
0.007
Carbon tetrachloride
0.004
Chlorate
0.7
Chlordane
0.0002
Chloramines
0.5 – 1.5
Chloride
200 – 300
Chlorine
5
Chlorite
0.7
Chloroform
0.3
Chlorotoluron
0.03
Chlorpyrifos
0.03
Chromium
0.05
Colour in drinking water
No visible colour
Copper
2.0
Cyanazine
0.0006
Cyanide
0.07
1,2-Dichlorobenzene
1.0
1,4-Dichlorobenzene
0.3
1,2-Dichloroethane
0.03
Dichloromethane
0.02
2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid
0.03
DDT and metabolites
0.001
Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate
0.008
1,2-Dichloroethylene
0.05
1,2-Dichloropropane
0.04
Dimethonate
0.006
1,4-Dioxane
0.05
Dissolved oxygen
No health-based guideline value is recommended
Edetic acid (EDTA)
0.6
Endrin
0.0006
Epichlorohydrin
0.0004
Ethylbenzene
0.3
Fenoprop
0.009
Fluoride
1.5
Hexachlorobutadiene
0.0006
Iron
No health-based guideline value is proposed
Isoproturon
0.009
Lead
0.01
Lindane
0.002
Manganese
0.4
Mercury
0.006
Methoxychlor
0.02
Metolachlor
0.01
Microcystin-LR
0.001
Molinate
0.006
Molybdenum
0.07
Monochloroacetate
0.02
N-Nitrosodimethylamine
0.0001
Nickel
0.07
Nitrate
50
Nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA)
0.2
Nitrite
3
Pendimethalin
0.02
Pentachlorophenol
0.009
Permethrin
0.3
pH
No health-based guideline value is proposed
Pyriproxyfen
0.3
Selenium
0.01
Simazine
0.002
Sulphate
No health-based guideline value has been derived
Styrene
0.02
Terbuthylazine
0.007
Tetrachloroethylene
0.04
Toluene
0.7
Total dissolved solids (TDS)
No health-based guideline value is proposed
Trichloroacetate
0.2
Trichloroethylene
0.02
2,4,6,-Trichlorophenol
0.2
Trifluralin
0.02
Trutuim
10000 Bq/L
Uranium
0.015
Vinyl chloride
0.0003
Xylenes-total
0.5
Zinc
No health-based guideline value is proposed

References:
Guidelines for drinking water quality, 4th edition, World Health Organization, 2011.