| Last Updated:: 05/02/2016

NOISE POLLUTION

REDUCE NOISE POLLUTION FOR HEALTHY LIVING

MANDATE

Noise is defined as unwanted sound. Sound, which pleases the listeners, is music and that which causes pain and annoyance is noise. At times, what is music for some can be noise for others.

 

Section 2 (a) of the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981 includes noise in the definition of ‘air pollutant’. Section 2(a) air pollution means any solid, liquid or gaseous substance including noise present in the atmosphere such concentration as may be or tent to injurious to human beings or other living creatures or plants or property or environment.


Further, for better regulation for noise pollution, there are The Noise Pollution (Regulation and Control) Rules, 2000 under The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986.


The main functions of the Central Pollution Control Board are as follows:
* To advise the Central Government on any matter concerning the prevention, control and abatement of noise pollution.
* To plan and cause to be executed a nation-wide programme for the prevention, control, and abatement of noise pollution.
* To provide technical assistance and guidance to the State Pollution Control Board.
* To carry out and sponsor investigations and research related to prevention, control and abatement of noise pollution.
* To collect, compile, and publish technical and statistical data related to noise pollution; and
* To lay down and annul standards for the quality of noise.


The main functions of the State Pollution Control Boards are as follows:
* To plan a comprehensive programme for prevention, control, and abatement of noise pollution and to secure the execution thereof;
* To advise the State Government on any matter concerning prevention, control, and abatement of noise pollution.
* To collect and disseminate information related to noise pollution.
* To collaborate with Central Pollution Control Board in programme related to prevention, control, and abatement of noise pollution; and
* To inspect noise pollution control areas, assess quality of noise and to take steps for prevention, control and abatement of noise pollution in such areas.


OBJECTIVE

Due to the deleterious effects on human health and psychological well-being of the people because of the increasing ambient noise levels in public places from various sources, inter-alia, industrial activity, construction activity, fire crackers, sound producing instruments, generator sets, loud speakers, public address systems, music systems, vehicular horns, and other mechanical devices, it is considered necessary to regulate and control noise producing and generating sources with the objective of maintaining the ambient air quality standards in respect of noise.


Ambient air quality standards in respect of noise :


Area Code Category of Area / Zone
Limits in dB(A) Leq*
Day Time Night Time
(A) Industrial area 75 70
(B) Commercial area 65 55
(C) Residential area 55 45
(D) Silence zone 50 40

Note:
1. Day time shall mean from 6:00 AM to 10:00 PM
2. Night time shall mean from 10:00 PM to 6:00 AM
3. Silence zone is an area comprising not less than 100 metres around hospitals, educational institutes, courts, religious places, or any other area which is declared as such by the competent authority.
4. Mixed categories of areas may be declared as one of the four above mentioned categories by the competent authority.
*dB(A) Leq denotes the time weighted average of the level of sound in decibels on scale A which is relatable to human hearing.
A decibel is a unit in which noise is measured.
“A”, in dB(A) Leq, denotes the frequency weighting in the measurement of noise and corresponds to frequency response characteristics of the human ear.
Leq: It is energy mean of the noise level over a specified period.

MONITORING NETWORK

To comply with ‘The Noise Pollution (Regulation and Control) Rules, 2000’, ambient noise inclusion as an environmental quality parameter and its monitoring in specified urban areas is regularly needed. Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) established the National Ambient Noise Monitoring Network (NANMN) covering 70 locations in 7 metro cities viz. Delhi, Lucknow, Hyderabad, Kolkata, Mumbai, Chennai, and Bangalore spread over 7 states viz. Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Telangana, West Bengal, Maharashtra, Tamilnadu, and Karnataka. In observance to The Noise Pollution (Regulation and Control) Rules, 2000, CPCB needs continuous monitoring of noise quality in the country. Keeping this fact in mind, CPCB has established a network of noise quality monitoring stations under NANMN.

 

Monitoring Station under the National Ambient Noise Monitoring Network Programme (NANMN)

At present, under NANMN 70 continuous monitoring stations are established, 10 in each of seven identified cities i.e. Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, Bangalore, Chennai, Lucknow and Hyderabad.


Cities Continuous monitoring stations under the National Ambient Noise Monitoring Network Programme (NANMN) Category of Area  
Delhi Dilshad Garden Silence
CPCB, HQ Commercial
DCE, Bawana Silence
ITO Commercial
NSIT, Dwarka Silence
Civil lines Commercial
R.K. Puram Silence
Anand Vihar Commercial
Mandir Marg Silence
Punjabi Bagh Residential
Bangalore Bangalore, BTM Residential
Marathali Commercial
NisargaBhawan Residential
Parisar Bhawan Commercial
Peeniya Industrial
Yeshwanthpur Commercial
R.V.C.E. Silence
Whitefield Industrial
NIMHANS Silence
Dolmur Residential
Chennai Eye Hospital Silence
Guindy Industrial
Perambur Commercial
T Nagar Commercial
Triplicane Residential
Pallikaranai Commercial
Velachery Residential
Warhermanpet Commercial
Anna Nagar Silence
Sowcarpet Residential
Hydrabad ABITS Commercial
Jeedimetla Industrial
Jublee Hills Residential
Zoo Silence
Punjagutta Commercial
Tarnka Residential
Gaddapotharam Industrial
Gachibowli Silence
Paradise Commercial
JNTU Commercial
Kolkata Gol Park Industrial
New Market Commercial
Patauli Residential
SSKM Hospital Silence
WBPCB Head Quarter Commercial
Birati Neelanchal Residential
R G Kar Silence
Tolly Gunge Commercial
Bag Bazar Residential
Taratala Industrial
Lucknow Talkatora Industrial
HajratGanj Commercial
P.G.I Silence
Indira Nagar Residential
Gomti Nagar Silence
Chinhat Industrial
IT College Silence
RSC Aliganj Commercial
Vibhuti Khand Residential
CSS Airport Commercial
Mumbai ASHP Silence
Bandra Commercial
MPCB, HQ Commercial
Thane Commercial
VASHI Hospital (Navi Mumbai) Silence
Kandivali Industrial
Powai Industrial
Mumbai, Chembur Residential
Mumbai, Andheri Industrial
Mumbai Ambassador Hotel Commercial

World Health Organization (WHO) GUIDELINES

 

WHO GUIDELINES FOR NOISE QUALITY

In WHO noise quality guidelines, values are summarized with regard to specific environments and effects. For each environment and situation, the guideline values take into consideration the identified health effects and are set, based on the lowest levels of noise that affect health (critical health effect). Guideline values typically correspond to the lowest effect level for general populations, such as those for indoor speech intelligibility. Noise guideline values are for the onset of health effects from noise exposures.


Specific environment
Time Base (hours)
Standard limits as per WHO guidelines
LAeq [dB]
LAmax, fast [dB]
Outdoor living area
16
50 – 55
-
Dwelling, indoors,
Inside bedrooms
16
8
35
30
-
45
Outside bedrooms
8
45
60
School class rooms and pre-schools, indoors
During class
35
-
Pre-school bedrooms, indoors
Sleeping time
30
45
School, playground outdoor
During play
55
-
Hospital, ward rooms, indoors
8
16
30
30
40
-
Hospitals, treatment rooms, indoors
-
As low as possible
-
Industrial, commercial, shopping and traffic areas, indoors and outdoors
24
70
110
Ceremonies, festivals and entertainment events
4
100
110
Public addresses, indoors and outdoors
1
85
110
Music through headphones/earphones
1
85 (under headphones, adapted to free-field values)
110
Impulse sounds from toys, fireworks and firearms
-
-
120-140 (peak sound pressure (not LAmax, fast), measured 100 mm from the ear)
Outdoors in parkland and conservation areas
-
Existing quiet outdoor areas should b e preserved and the ratio of intruding noise to natural background sound should be kept low
-

References:
Guidelines for community noise, World Health Organization, 1995.

FINDINGS

The noise quality data is available at:
http://cpcbenvis.nic.in/noise_quality_data.html.

 

Trends in noise quality across the country since 2011 depict a picture that,

Industrial zones strictly follow the noise regulation and control rules, as none of the industrial location across the country is violating the limits prescribed, both during day and night time.

Commercial zone monitoring locations show a mixed pattern as some of the stations have recorded high noise levels while some are well under prescribed limits.

Residential zones also show similar pattern as of the commercial zones. The situation is miserable where the night time violation is much higher as compared to day time noise pollution, for e.g. in Kolkata.

Silence zones are the areas which are exposed to severe noise pollution during all the time. All the noise monitoring locations in silence zones across the country show gross violation of the prescribed limits both during day and night time. Notably, most of the silence zones are around hospitals which are under serious threat of noise pollution.

NOISE POLLUTION (REGULATION AND CONTROL)


Noise pollution (regulation and control)
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(pdf)

AUTHORITY LIST FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF NOISE RULES 2000


Authority list for implementation of noise rules 2000
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(pdf)

NOISE LIMITS FOR VEHICLES


Noise limits for vehicles
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(pdf)

NOISE STANDARDS FOR FIRECRACKERS


Noise standards for firecrackers
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(pdf)

FIRECRACKER NOTIFICATION GAZETTE MARCH, 2013


Firecracker Notification Gazette March, 2013
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(pdf)