BIOLOGICAL WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF WETLANDS IN BIRD SANCTUARIES

4.0 BIOLOGICAL WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF WETLANDS IN BIRD SANCTUARIES

Bio monitoring of water quality was initiated at wetlands/water bodies used for propagation of wildlife and fisheries as one of the important designated best use of the aquatic resources. The wetlands existing in wildlife habitats of most of the Bird sanctuaries demand water quality suitable for highly productive and rich bio-diversity of fauna and flora. In view of protection of rare and endangered/threatened species of migratory and resident birds, the bio-monitoring of water quality was initiated at 42 nos. of wetlands identified in 26 nos. of bird sanctuaries existing in the state of Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Delhi and Jammu & Kashmir. Wetlands in Bird Sanctuaries include various surface water bodies such as Rivers, Canals, Lakes, Barrages, Drains, Marshes, Beels, Estuaries and Mangroves.

The taxonomic composition of wetlands varied with respect to hydrological conditions of water bodies such as Rivers, Lakes and Ponds. Most of the wetlands identified in Bird Sanctuaries belonged to the Biological Water Quality Class of `C' and `D'. Classes. `A' water quality of clean stretches existed either in the upstream river stretches of wetlands or in very deep-water bodies (Table 14). These stretches are not suitable for bird sanctuaries due to non-availability of sufficient fauna and flora. A total of 15 nos. of families of benthic macro-invertebrates were collected from 3 wetlands of Class `A' quality.

None of the wetlands existed in `B' class of water quality of BWQC as a result of habitat destruction due to various human activities such as bathing etc.

A maximum of 27 nos. of wetlands supported biodiversity suitable for `C' class of water quality (Table 17). Maximum of 43 nos. of benthic macro-invertebrate families (Table 17) have been collected from wetlands of moderately polluted water quality (Class `C'). There were only 9 nos. of wetlands having water quality with heavy pollution of water quality class `D'. A total of 27 nos. of families of benthic macro-invertebrates were collected from these wetlands (Table 18). The water quality of 4 nos. of wetlands belonged to class `E' of BWQC either due to severe pollution or due to sandy substratum (Table 19).

Table 15: Clean Water (Class `A') Stretches of Wetlands existing in Bird Sanctuaries

S. No.

State

Wetland

District/Town/Village

Location of Stretch/Bird Sanctuary

Taxa/Families of Benthic Macro-invertebrates available from wetlands

1.

Jammu & Kashmir

Manasbal Lake

Manasbal near Kondabal

Manasbal Lake

EPHEMEROPTERA/ Heptageniidae, Leptophlebiidae, Empemerellidae, Baetidae

River Sind upstream

Sonamarg

2-3 km upstream of Sonamarg and Leh border Thajiwas wildlife sanctuary

TRICHOPTERA/ Leptoceridae, Goeridae, Rhyacophillidae, Polycentropodidae

Dachigam Nullah

Srinagar

Dachigam National Park

ODONATA/ Lestidae, Gomphidae, Libellulidae

PLANARIA/ Planariidae

DIPTERA/ Simulidae, Blepharoceridae

HIRUDINEA/ Glossiphonidae

 

 

Table 16: Slightly Polluted (Class `B') Stretches of Wetlands in Bird Sanctuaries

None of the wetlands of Bird Sanctuaries existed in Class `B’



Table 17: Moderately Polluted (Class C) Stretches of Wetland existing in Bird sanctuaries

S.

No.

State

Wetland

District/ Town Village

Location of Stretch/ Bird sanctuary

Taxa/families of Benthic Macro-invertebrates available from wetlands

1.

Rajasthan

Ghana Canal

Bharatpur

Keoladeo Bird Sanctuary

EPHEMEROPTERA/ Ephemerellidae, Baetidae

ODONATA/ Lestidae, Gomphidae, Libellulidae, Aeschnidae

MOLLUSCA/ Thiaridae, Lymnaeidae, Viviparidae, Physidae, Unionidae, Planorbidae, Bithynidae, Sphaeriidae, Hydrobiidae

 

CRUSTACEA/ Asellidae, Atydae, Gammaridae, Paleamonidae, Potamobiidae (Hermit Crab)

HEMIPTERA/ Gerridae, Naucoridae, Nepidae Belastomatidae, Pleidae, Corixidae, Notonectidae, Aphelocheiridae, Velida

Ghana lake

Keoladeo Bird Sanctuary K&L Block

2.

Andhra Pradesh

River Godavari Upstream

Rajahmundry East Godavari District

Dowaileswaram

3.

Andhra Pradesh

River Corangi at Low tide

Ramanapalam East Godavari District

Corangi Wild Life sanctuary

4.

Yanam (Pondicherry)

River Gaderu in Coringa Wild life Sanctuary

Savitri Nagar

Wooden Bridge Coringa Wild Life Sanctuary

5.

Andhra Pradesh

Manjira Barrage

Sangareddy, Hyderabad

Manjira Wild Life Sanctuary

6.

Andhra Pradesh

Godavari Canal

Chettipeta West Godavari Dist.

Downstream of Hydel Power Plant, U/s of Kolleru Bird Sanctuary

7.

Andhra Pradesh

Upputeru outlet Drain of Kolleru lake

Akiveedu at Vijaywada

Near Road Bridge Kolleru Bird Sanctuary

COLEOPTERA/ Gyrinidae, Hydrophilidae, Dytiscidae, Hygrobiidae, Elminthidae

DIPTERA/ Chironomidae, Tipulidae, Syrphidae, Simulidae

PLANARIA/ Planaride

HIRUDINEA/ Glossiphonidae, Erpobdellidea

MEGALOPTERA/Sialidae

OLIGOCHAETA/ Oligochaetes

8.

Andhra Pradesh

Polaraju Drain of Kolleru lake

Lokumudy West Godvari District

Near Road Bridge, Kolleru Bird Sanctuary

9.

Andhra Pradesh

Chinaedlagadi Drain

Kowadalanka Area, West Godavari Dist

Eluru-Kaikaluru Road, Kolleru Bird Sanctuary

10.

NCT Delhi

Najafgarh Drain

Dhansa

Dhansa Regulator, Najafgarh Jheel

Delhi-Gurgaon Border

Jhatikra

Near Road Bridge, Najafgarh Jheel

Delhi

Chhawla

Chhawla, Guest House of Irrigation and flood control Department, Najafgarh Drain

Goela Khurd

Goela Dairy Police check post, Najafgarh Drain

11.

Uttar Pradesh

River Yamuna

Delhi

Wazirabad water works

Wazirabad Barrage opposite bank at Sonia Vihar

Okhla Barrage Pakshi Vihar

Keetham Lake

Keetham (Agra)

Delhi-Agra Road, 20 km from Agra City, Sur Sarovar Bird Sanctuary

Samaspur Lake

Raebarely

Samaspur Bird sanctuary

River Sai Upstream

Raebarely

Lucknow-Kanpur Road Bridge on NH-25 Samaspur Bird sanctuary

River Sai Downstream

Raebarely

Saipul on Lucknow- Varanasi Road Samaspur Bird Sanctuary

River Garrah

Sandi at Hardoi

Channel goes to Sandi lake Bird sanctuary

12.

Jammu & Kashmir

Hokersar’s

Zainakote

Hokera wetland Sector 1, on NH-1A

Narkara Nadru

Nadru

Army Airport Road By pass on the right side

Hygam

Hygam

Right side of Srinagar-Baramulla NH-1A

Ajas Jheel

Ajas

Adjacent to Srinagar-Bandipora road

Wullar Lake

Haretare

Sumbal-Spore Road

Shallabugh

Shallabugh

Ganderbal Headquarter near Jaswant Post F. Co.

Padgampora

Pulwama, Padgampora

Avantipora-Pulwama Road on the way to Army Air Port Road near Seed Multiplication farm

Manibugh

Pampore, Manibugh

Near Galander Village on NH-1A

Chatlum-Lalpore

Pampore, Chatlum

Near Fish seed farm office of the Fisheries Development Assistant

Nagin Lake

Hazarat Bal, Srinagar

Srinagar


Table 18: Highly Polluted (Class 'D') stretches of Wetland existing in Bird sanctuaries

S.

No.

State

Wetland

District/Town Village

Stretch/ Bird Sanctuary

Taxa/ families of Benthic Macro-invertebrates available from Wetlands

1.

Andhra Pradesh

River Godavari Upstream

Rajahmundry, East Godavari District

Arya Puram u/s Coringa Wild Life Sanctuary

EPHEMEROPTERA/Baetidae, Leptophlebiidae

CRUSTACEA/ Gammaridae

2.

Delhi-Gurgaon Border

Najafgarh Jheel

Jhatikra

1˝ km upstream of Jhatikra

3.

Delhi

Najafgarh Drain

Kakrola

Kakrola Regulator Near Bridge

MOLLUSCA/ Viviparidae, Thiaridae, Planorbidae, Sphaeridae, Lymnaeidae

HEMIPTERA/ Belastomatidae, Corixidae, Notonectidae, Nepidae, Pleidae

COLEOPTERA/ Hydrophilidae, Dytiscidae,

Hygrobiidae, Psephenidae

DIPTERA/Tipulidae, Culicidae, Chironomide, Ephidridae, Blepheroceridae

ODONATA/ Libellulidae, Lestidae,

OLIGOCHAETA/ Oligochaetes

MEGALOPTERA/ Sialidae

HIRUDINEA/ Glossiphonidae

Uttam Nagar

Near Uttam Nagar Police check post

Vikas Puri

U/s of Pankha Road Drain confluence

4.

Uttar Pradesh

Nawabganj Lake

Nawabganj in Unnao

Lucknow-Kanpur NH-25 Nawabganj Bird sanctuary

5.

Uttar Pradesh

Sandi Lake

Sandi in Hardoi

19 km on Hardoi Sandi Road Near Sandi Police Station, Sandi Bird sanctuary

6.

Jammu & Kashmir

Mirgund, Srinagar

Mirgund, near Noorbad Hyderpura

16 km from Srinagar on Srinagar-Gulmarg Road

Panzipora

Kapore, Marhama

Srinagar-Jammu NH-1A towards left turn from Sangam Bridge

Inner Dal Lake

Srinagar

Adjoining the city of Srinagar, Dal Kutwal upto Watpore area

River Sindh Inner nullah

Mamer Sonamarg

Sonamarg-Srinagar Road

 

Table 19: Severely Polluted (Class 'E') stretches of Wetland existing in Bird Sanctuary

S. No.

State

Wetlands

District/Town/Village

Location of stretch/ Bird sanctuary

Taxa/families of Benthic Macro-invertebrate available from Wetlands

1.

Delhi

Najafgarh Drain

Delhi

D/s of Keshopuram STP outfall

No macro-invertebrates recorded.

    

Basaidarapur behind I & F Control office

 
    

Ashok Vihar Near Wazirpur Police Check Post

 
    

Bharat Nagar

 

2.

Delhi

Najafgarh Drain

 

Bharat Nagar to confluence to River Yamuna at D/s of Wazirabad Barrage Najafgarh drain is canalized

 

3.

Jammu & Kashmir

Shallabugh, River Sindh d/s

Ganderbal

HQ of Shallabugh near Jaswand post F. Company on the way to Shallabugh wetland by boat

No macro invertebrates due to Sandy substratum

  

River Sindh u/s

Mammar

Sonamurg-Srinagar Road

 

 

Table 20: Taxonomic Composition of Benthic Macro-invertebrate families
of Wetlands in Bird Sanctuaries

S.

No.

Taxa

Biological Water Quality Classes of Wetlands

A

B

C

D

E

1.

EPHEMEROPTERA

Heptageniidae, Leptophlebiidae, Ephemerellidae, Baetidae

No animals

Ephemerellidae Baetidae

Leptophlebiidae, Baetidae

No Macro inverte-brates

2.

TRICHOPTERA

Leptoceridae, Goeridae, Rhyacophillidae, Polycentropodidae

No animals

No animals

No animals

No Macro inverte-brates

3.

ODONATA

Lestidae, Gomphidae, Libellulidae

No animals

Lestidae, Gomphidae, Libellulidae, Aeschnidae

Lestidae, Libellulidae

No Macro inverte-brates

4.

PLANARIA

Planariidae

No animals

No animals

No animals

No Macro inverte-brates

5.

MOLLUSCA

No animals

No animals

Thiaridae, Lymnaeidae, Viviparidae, Physidae, Unionidae, Planorbiidae, Bithynidae, Sphaeridae, Hydrobiidae

Viviparidae, Thiaridae, Planorbidae, Sphaeridae, Lymnaeidae

No Macro inverte-brates

6.

CRUSTACEA

No animals

No animals

Asellidae, Atydae, Gamaridae, Paleamonidae, Potamobiidae

Gammaridae

No Macro inverte-brates

7.

HEMIPTERA

No animals

No animals

Gerridae, Naucoridae, Nepidae, Belastomatidae, Pleidae, Corixidae, Notonectidae, Aphelocheiridae, Velidae

Belastomatidae, Corixidae, Notonectidae, Nepidae, Pleidae

No Macro inverte-brates

8.

COLEOPTERA

No animals

No animals

Gyrinidae, Hydrophilidae, Dytiscidae, Hygrobiidae, Elminithidae

Hydrophilidae, Dytiscidae, Hygrobiidae, Psephenidae

No Macro inverte-brates

9.

DIPTERA

Simulidae Blepharoceridae

No animals

Chironornidae, Tipulidae, Syrphidae, Simulidae

Tipulidae, Culicidae, Chironomidae, Ephidridae, Blepharoceridae

No Macro inverte-brates

10.

HIRUDINEA

Glossiphonidae

No animals

Glossiphonidae, Erpobdellidae

Glossiphonidae

No Macro inverte-brates

11.

MEGALOPTERA

No animals

No animals

Sialidae

Sialidae

No Macro inverte-brates

12.

OLIGOCHAETA

No animals

No animals

Oligochaetes

Oligochaetes

No Macro inverte-brates

Total families

15

0

42

27

0

 

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