BIO-MONITORING OF WETLANDS IN WILD LIFE HABITATS OF BIRDS SANCTUARIES IN INDIA - CASE STUDIESANDS

3.0 BIO-MONITORING OF WETLANDS IN WILD LIFE HABITATS OF BIRDS SANCTUARIES IN INDIA - CASE STUDIES

KEOLADEO GHANA NATIONAL PARK, BHARATPUR, RAJASTHAN

Wetlands of Keoladeo Ghana National Park at Bharatpur in Rajasthan State is famous for endangered cranes, the Siberian crane (Crus lucogenanus). The Western population of the Siberian Crane, breeds in the environments of the River Ob (Siberia) and visit to India every year during winter. Keoladeo is named after Keoladeo Shiva temple located inside the bird sanctuary and Ghana means dense forest. Thus, Keoladeo Ghana was the only place in the country where the exotic population of migratory birds regularly used to visit.

However, over the last three decades, the cranes visiting Bharatpur have reduced in number from around 200 Nos. in 1964-65 to just four in 1991-92. The duration of these endangered variety of birds to stay in the park has also decreased due to change in habitat conditions.

Keoladeo Ghana was developed in a total area of 29 km2 (2900 ha wetland area) and was considered for bird sanctuary in the year 1956 and officially notified as Bird Sanctuary in year 1973. The status of National Park was awarded to Keoladeo Ghana later in the year 1981. National Park was also designated as Ramsar Site - a wetland of international

 

importance under the Ramsar Conventions. This important wetland has also been declared as a World Heritage Site and got distinction of being included under World Heritage Convention. Approximately 375 species of birds could be observed in three different seasons at Keoladeo Ghana National Park. Air quality monitoring station of Mathura Refinery is located in the sanctuary premises.

Table 2: Environmental Problems related to various activities in vicinity of
Keoladeo Ghana National Park at Bharatpur (Rajasthan)

S. No.

Location

Wetlands/ Bird Sanctuary

Activities

Environmental Problems

1.

Keoladeo Bird Sanctuary Bharatpur

Ghana Canal

Raw water source of wetlands for Birds Sanctuary

  • Lack of fresh water flow in Ghana Canal during summers
  • Excessive growth of weed such as Duckweed and Azola and other macrophytic vegetation
  • Destruction of feeding habitats.

2.

K-Block

L-Block

Keoladeo Bird Sanctuary Bharatpur

Wetlands of Ghana lake

Most of the catchment of wetland is dry during summer leaving habitats for few resident birds. Brick kilns in the vicinity, Tourist activity, grazing animals, Evaporation of water during summers. Drying of wetland plants and Trees, Deforestation, Mathura Refinery in the vicinity of Bharatpur and Mathura.

Drying tree and grasses during summer

Habitat development for animals such as Python.

  • Loss of Habitat due to lack of fresh water. Profuse growth of weed.
  • Drying of tree leads to habitat destruction.
  • Profuse growth of water hyacinth, duckweed and algal growth
  • Air quality and noise levels in the surrounding.
  • Fish mortality lead to attraction for scavengers
  • Refinery & kilns may affect migration of Birds, Danger of fire catch in the wetland area.
  • Many of birds become victim of the python coming out during winter season.


Table 3: Bio-Monitoring of Wetlands of Keoladeo Ghana National Park, Bharatpur

S.

No.

 

Wetlands

 

Wetland Location

Temperature oC

 

Saprobic score

 

Diversity Score

 

BWQC

 

Biological

Water

Quality

Air

Water

1

Ghana Canal)

Keoladeo Bird Sanctuary Bharatpur

28.0

20.5

5.0

0.65

C

Moderate Pollution

2

Wetland Ghana Lake

K- Block

L-Block

Keoladeo Bird Sanctuary Bharatpur

 

31.0

 

19.0

 

5.0

 

0.79

 

C

 

Moderate Pollution


SAMASPUR BIRD SANCTUARY, SAMASPUR LAKE, RAEBARELY, UTTAR PRADESH

Samaspur Bird Sanctuary is located in Salon block of Raebarely district at a distance of 122 km from Lucknow in Uttar Pradesh. The bird sanctuary is situated on Lucknow-Varanasi Road about 30 km from Raebarely. Bird sanctuary is connected with Samaspur village by Road at 3 km. distance. Samaspur village to salon is 7 km on Salon-Unchahar Road. Bird Sanctuary is spread over an area of 799.371 ha. During winters, bird sanctuary become of special attraction for local resident and groups of migratory birds. In the year 1987, Samaspur lake and other six lakes were declared combinedly as Samaspur Bird sanctuary in order to provide proper conservation to resident and migratory birds. Almost 250 species of resident and migratory birds find shelter at Samaspur Bird sanctuary. The important aquatic birds are, Egrets, Painted stork, Purple Moorhen, Purple Heron, White breasted water hen, Whistling teal, Phaesant Teal, Jacana, Little grebs, Cormorants, Kingfisher, Bronzed winged Jacana, Darter, Cotton Teal, Brahmany kite, Black Drago, Green Bee Eater, Indian Sarus Crane, Pintail etc. The raw water source in the lake is mainly obtained through rainwater harvesting and run off collected through drains from adjoining villages. The outlet of the Samaspur lake joins River Sai. The water depth of Samaspur lake area varies from 0.30 cm to 1 metre. In the deeper region, half of the depth of water body is occupied by the sediments.

River Sai Upstream

River Sai Upstream location was selected to compare the water quality of receiving water body after the outlet discharge of Samaspur lake to downstream of River Sai, which originates from Pilibhit district of Uttar Pradesh. After passing through various towns such as Shahjahanpur, Hardoi, Unnao, Rae Bareli and Pratapgarh, River Sai confluences with River Gomti at Jaunpur district of Uttar Pradesh. River Gomti is a major tributary of River Ganga, joining at downstream of Jaunpur. The sampling location for bio-monitoring of River Sai was selected at upstream of Raebarely on Lucknow-Kanpur Road Bridge of NH-25. River Sai is a flowing water body with water depth of approximately 1.5 meter on a clay and muddy substratum.

River Sai Downstream

The sampling location on River Sai downstream was selected near Saipul on the opposite bank of Baba Aughar Ram Ashram at Munshiganj. The sampling location is 8 km away from Raebarely on the way to Samaspur on Lucknow-Varanasi Road. River Sai at downstream receives outlet discharge of Samaspur Bird Sanctuary through a drain at Mannad and another drain passing through Unchahar and Salon Road. The surrounding land is a grazing area. The depth of water body ranges from 0.6 to 2 m and the width of river is approximately 35 m.

 

 


NAWABGANJ BIRD SANCTUARY, UNNAO, UTTAR PRADESH

Nawabganj Bird sanctuary is situated in Unnao district at 45 km. from Lucknow and Kanpur on Lucknow-Kanpur National Highway-25. In order to promote proper protection and conservation to the resident and migratory birds, Nawabganj lake and its surrounding area was declared as Nawabganj Bird Sanctuary in the year 1984. Approximately 250 species of resident and migratory birds are found here. The arrival of migratory birds starts from the month of November. The lake is in its behest during the month of December and January. By the end of February, these migratory guests gradually start leaving to their respective destinations. Some resident birds stay here round the year, do nesting and lay eggs. The common aquatic birds inhabiting Nawabganj lake are Open Bill Stork, Painted Stork, White Necked Stork, Black Necked Stork, White Ibis, Glossy Ibis, Black Ibis, Darter, Cormorants, White breasted water hen, Kingfisher, Spot Bill, Spoon Bill, Saras Cranes, Whistling Teal, Phaesant Teal, Jacana, Bronzed winged Jacana, Purple Moorhen, Indian Moorhen, Grebs, Lapwing, Egret, Purple Heron and Pond Heron. Nawabganj Bird sanctuary is spread in an area of 2246 sq. km. The nearest railway station is Kusumbi at a distance of 2 km from Nawabganj. Wetlands of Nawabganj Bird sanctuary was left with a small patches of pools of water in the entire area during summer month at the time of monitoring in July. The raw water for the lake is obtained through rainwater harvesting during monsoon. During summer, the requirement of water for resident birds inhabiting the lake is met through tube well source. The Kaushambi canal located 3 km upstream from the lake is the raw water source for bird sanctuary.

SANDI BIRD SANCTUARY (SANDI LAKE), HARDOI, UTTAR PRADESH

Sandi Bird Sanctuary is located at a distance of 19 km on Hardoi-Sandi Road in Hardoi district of Uttar Pradesh. Hardoi is 250 km on the way from Delhi and Lucknow. Hardoi can be approached from Kanpur, Farukhabad and Kannuauj. Sandi Bird Sanctuary is 1 km. from Sandi village on Main Road, Nawabganj, near Sandi Police Station Hardoi. Sandi Bird sanctuary was developed in the year 1990 in view to protect the natural habitats and aquatic vegetation for the local residents and migratory birds. The Sandi Bird sanctuary is also known by its ancient name as Dahar Jheel. The lake is spread over 3.0854 square km area. River Garra earlier named as Garun Ganga also located near the sanctuary. Migratory birds rest for sometime in the river front before reaching to Sandi Bird sanctuary. The migratory birds start coming at the beginning of winter in the month of November.

The bird sanctuary acquires its peak habitat during January-February. Some of the birds residing in Sandi Lake are Egrets, Black Drago, Saras Crane, Cattle Egrets etc. At the onset of summer season till March, the migratory birds gradually return back to their native places. At the time of Bio-monitoring during present study in July, the lake was suffering from water scarcity and the entire lake area was reduced to a small pool of 1.0 to 1.25 m depth, with marshy area around. The surrounding land was used for grazing cattle and cultivation.

SUR SAROVAR NATIONAL BIRD SANCTUARY (KEETHAM LAKE), KEETHAM, AGRA, UTTAR PRADESH

Keetham Lake is situated at a distance of 20 km from Agra city in Uttar Pradesh and at a distance of 180 km. from Delhi. The entire lake is formed in a catchment area of 7.13 km2. Keetham Lake is linked by Railway track at Keetham Railway Station and it has recently been declared as National Bird Sanctuary in 1991 by U.P. Forest Department and named as Sur Sarovar. Keetham Lake is pentagonal in shape with artificially created islands for shelter and breeding grounds to the migratory birds. More than 106 species of migratory and resident birds are known to have their resting habitats at Sur Sarovar. The important aquatic birds inhabiting Keetham lake are Little Gerbs, Cormorants, Darter, Grey Heron, Purple Heron, Paddy Bird, Cattle Egrets, Large Egrets, Smaller Egrets, Little Egrets, Night Heron, Indian Reef Heron, Black necked Stork, white Ibis, Spon Bill, Greying Goose, Bar headed Goose, Lesser Whistling Teal, Ruddy Shelduck, Pintail, Common Teal, Spot Billed Duck, Gadwall, Wigeon, Shovler and Comb Duck. The riverine belt of River Yamuna surrounds the area of Sur-Sarovar. The raw water for Keetham Lake is obtained from Agra Canal originating from Okhla barrage on River Yamuna in Delhi. At Delhi Agra road, the Agra Canal water is diverted through Jodhpur branch near BMAS Engineering Collage located about 2 km from Keetham.

The climatic conditions of the lake area is typical of Uttar Pradesh plains with hot windy summers and extremely cold winters. The average temperature ranges between 1.5 oC to 49 oC. The monsoon season occurs during July to September. Recently, U.P. Forest Department has created woodlands and developed shallow areas near lake, making it a natural habitat for birds nesting sites. The lake water of Keetham is also used as raw water intake for Mathura Refinery Water Treatment Plant located in vicinity of Keetham Lake. At present the water is chlorinated before use. The entire lake area gets covered by profuse growth of macrophytic vegetation of water hyacinth (Eichornia sp.) and Potamogeton sp. during summers. The water quality of Keetham lake supports wide range of avifauna during winter season.

Table 4: Bio-monitoring of Wetlands in selected Bird Sanctuaries in Uttar Pradesh

S. No.

 

Bird Sanctuaries

 

Wetlands

 

Location

Temperature 0C

Saprobic Score

Diversity Score

BWQC

Biological water Quality

Air

Water

     

1.

Samaspur Bird Sanctuary

Samaspur Lake

Salon block of Raebarely

35.0

31.5

5.3

0.68

C

Moderate Pollution

   

River Sai Upstream

Upstream of Raebarely at Lucknow-Kanpur Road Bridge on NH25

34.0

31.0

5.55

0.9

C

Moderate Pollution

 

July, 2002

River Sai Downstream

Saipul on Lucknow- Varanasi Road Raebarely

35.0

32.0

5.5

0.69

C

Moderate Pollution

2.

Nawabganj Bird Sanctuary

July, 2002

Nawabganj Lake

Unnao on Lucknow-Kanpur NH-25

36.0

39.0

5.0

0.06

D

Heavy Pollution

3.

Sandi Bird Sanctuary

 

 

Sandi Lake (Dahar Jheel)

Hardoi, 19 km on Hardoi- Sandi Road

38.0

37.0

2.0

0.25

D

Heavy Pollution

 

July, 2002

River Garrah

Channel goes to Sandi Lake at Sandi, Hardoi

31.0

32.5

5.6

0.75

C

Moderate Pollution

4.

Sur Sarovar Bird sanctuary

 

June, 2001

Keetham lake

Keetham, 25 km from Agra on Delhi – Agra Road

30.5

38.0

5.2

0.86

C

Moderate Pollution

 

Sur Sarovar

 

January, 2002

Keetham lake

Keetham, 25 km from Agra on Delhi- Agra Road

23.0

20.0

5.1

0.84

C

Moderate Pollution

 

 

Table 5: Environmental Problems related to various Activities in Vicinity of Bird Sanctuaries of Uttar Pradesh

S. No.

Bird Sanctuaries

Wetland

Activities

Environmental Problems

1.

Samaspur Bird Sanctuary

Samaspur Lake

Tourist Resort, Cattle wading, farming, Cultivation, Fishing, Brick industries, water used for drinking purpose by local inhabitant, Drainage discharge. Open defecation on village side of lake

  • Deforestation
  • Silting in water and sediment deposition.
  • Profuse growth of water Hyacinth infesting the sensitive macrophytic vegetation.
  • Weed infestation
  • Air quality of surrounding
  • Burning fuel in the vicinity of Bird sanctuary,
  • Surface run offs and human influences.

River Sai U/s

Construction of Road NH-25, cattle wading, dredging soil, Melon farming, cultivation, open defection on surrounding land. Brick kilns. Deforestation

  • Silting in water body
  • Faecal contamination through surface run offs.
  • Run offs from cultivated lands of surroundings

River Sai D/S

Baba Aughar Ram Ashram for Leprosy patient on the bank of River, Outlet discharge of Samaspur lake through drains, sewage and waste water discharge of Raebarely city, open defecation in surrounding lands

  • Bio-medical waste discharge from Ashram
  • Profuse growth of Duck weed and water hyacinth due to waste water discharges
  • Growth of Filamentous algae in River, surface run offs, silting etc.

2.

Nawabganj Bird Sanctuary

Nawabganj lake

Heavy vehicular Traffic on NH-25, Grazing animals in the lake area, Use of Ground water in lake catchment area, Tourism, Children Park, Power grid in the vicinity, Brick kilns, Pigs and cattles wading in lake. Social forestry, leather Tanning and vegetable Tanning Industries

  • Noise and Vehicular emissions
  • Water quality
  • Human influences and disturbance to bird habitats. High tension of Power Grid may affect migratory birds, fire forest
  • Industrial wastewater surface run offs.
  • Water scarcity
  • Deforestation, Lack of proper habitat for resident birds during summers.

3.

Sandi Bird Sanctuary

Sandi Lake

Railway Track 20 km at Hardoi cultivation, Grazing animals, Residential, Municipal solid waste dumping on roadside along the sanctuary. Surface drainage overflow during monsoon, wood cutting for shops, cattle wading in the lake

 

  deforestation, Open defecation, cattle cow dung etc. Brick kiln Industries

 

  • Lack of water in lake during summer
  • Habitat destruction for resident birds, water quality deterioration due to grazing cattles, buffalos etc.
  • Surface run offs from cultivated lands in lake area, city sewage and municipal waste from Sandi village

  • Noise levels etc.

 

4.

Keetham- Sur Sarovar Bird Sanctuary

Keetham lake

Water Intake for Mathura Refinery Treatment Plant, Chlorination of Intake water, Mathura Refinery on the way to Keetham lake. Railway track, Heavy vehicles on Delhi-Agra Road

  • Air quality & Noise levels
  • Excessive growth of water hyacinth and other Macrophytic vegetation
  • Water loss during summer and effect on water quality
  • Silting due to deforestation in the area.

 

WETLANDS OF MANJIRA BARRAGE, SANGAREDDY, ANDHRA PRADESH

The State of Andhra Pradesh constitute one of the major river systems in India, comprising three major river valleys viz. Godavari, Krishna and Pennar and about 37 medium and minor river systems. The drainage area of Rivers Krishna and Godavari within the State is 1,47,722 km2, which is nearly 64% of total geographical area of the State. The average rainfall in the State is 946 mm derived from both South-West and North-East monsoon. Indian rivers are mainly classified into four groups, Himalayan rivers, the rivers of Deccan plateau, the Coastal rivers, and the drainage originated rivers. All rivers in Andhra Pradesh are basically rain dependent. Some rivers are even dry in summer. Thus rainwater harvesting in barrages across rivers are sole source of fresh waters. Some of these rivers are major wetland site for wild life habitats.

Manjira Barrage is located at Sangareddy near Hyderabad in Andhra Pradesh. The water body has been identified as one of the major wetland site in the country by Ministry of Environment and Forests. Manjira wild life sanctuary inhabits all kinds of animals including Birds, Reptiles and Mammals. The raw water of Manjira Barrage is used as drinking water source for Hyderabad Metropolitan Water Supply and Sewerage Board Phase II water and Treatment Plant at Kalabgoor. Besides wild life, the water quality supports variety of aquatic fauna and flora. The surrounding land use is agriculture and forest.

River Manjira is one of the tributary of largest River Godavari of the Peninsular India. The Godavari basin extends over an area of 3,12,812 km2, which is nearly 10 percent of the total geographical area of the country. The basin lies between East longitudes 73o26' and 83o7' and North latitudes 16'16' and 22o 36' at Decan plateau, and covers large areas in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra in addition to smaller areas in Karnataka and Orissa.



River Manjira is an important tributary at upstream of Godavari. Among other tributaries, such as the Pranhita, the Indravati and the Sabari joins the River Godavari in its downstream reaches. River Manjira originates from Balaghat Hills near Ahemednagar. After travelling through Latur and Bidar districts, it reaches Medak district in the vicinity of Bolaram and Patancheru near Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh. Ultimately it drains into River Godavari at Basara, Nizamabad.

WETLANDS OF KOLLERU LAKE, KRISHNA AND WEST GODAVARI DISTRICTS, ANDHRA PRADESH

The Kolleru lake has been identified as one of the major fresh water wetland site in the districts of Krishna and West Godavari in the State of Andhra Pradesh India. The Kolleru lake and its ecological stretch spreads over about 2,00,000 acres (from 0 to 10 ft. contour M.S.L.) between longitude 81-05' and 81-20' East and latitudes 16-32' and 16-51' North in the districts of Krishna and West Godavari. Kolleru Lake is fed directly by two seasonal rivers, the Buameru and Tammileru (East and West branches). Beside almost 30 inflowing drains and channels feed Kolleru Lake with the run off waters. In between Godavari and Krishna deltas, the Kolleru Lake functions as a natural flood balancing reservoir. The deltaic region serves as highly productive, agriculture, fishing and related cottage occupations for the livelihood of local inhabitants. The catchment area of Kolleru Lake stretches over 4763 km2 of upland area. Out of it 1358 km2 of agricultural delta area are mostly cultivated with paddy. Kolleru Lake joins Bay of Bengal on the south-eastern end of the lake through an outlet channel of 62 km of original length known as Upputeru channel. Kolleru lake inhabit wide range of migratory and resident birds. The common aquatic birds observed were Grey Heron, Coot, Purple Heron, Lepwing, Egretrs, Common Teal, Pochard, Cormorants, Pond Heron, Purple Moor Hen, Grey Heron, Teal. Aquaculture and fishing is practiced in the fishponds being fed by direct pumping through Kolleru lake water. During monsoon, the backwaters of sea create serious drainage problems, which cause floods in the towns and cities around the lake.

Table 6: Bio-monitoring of Wetlands of Kolleru Lake in West Godavari Districts

S.

No.

 

Wetlands

Location on water body/ Wetland

Temperature oC

Saprobic

score

Diversity Score

 

BWQC

Biological Water Quality

Air

Water

1.

Circar Channel

Alapadu run off at Wooden Bridge

32.5

31.9

5.1

0.64

C

Moderate Pollution

2.

Sringavara-pupadu

Confluence of Upputreru drain and Sringavara pupadu drain

29.0

31.5

5.2

0.5

C

Moderate Pollution

3.

Circar Channel

½ km from wooden Bridge at Alapadu

32.5

31.9

5.3

0.55

C

Moderate Pollution

4.

Kolleru Lake

Kolletikota

34.5

34.0

5.2

0.52

C

Moderate Pollution

5.

Kolleru lake

Pedaedlagadi on Eluru- Kaikaluru Road

32.0

38.0

5.0

0.75

C

Moderate Pollution

6.

Upputeru outlet Drain

Akiveedu Road Bridge, Vijaywada

31.5

32.0

5.5

0.71

C

Moderate Pollution

7.

Polaraju Drain

Lokumudy Near Road Bridge

34.5

33.8

5.0

0.50

C

Moderate Pollution

8.

Chinaedlagadi Drain

Eluru-Kaikaluru Road Kowadalanka Area

34.5

32.0

4.9

0.54

C

Moderate Pollution

9.

Kolleru lake

Pedaedlagadi on Eluru- Kaikaluru Road

32.0

38.0

5.0

0.75

C

Moderate Pollution

 

 

WETLANDS IN CORINGA WILD LIFE SANCTUARY, EAST GODAVARI DISTRICT, ANDHRA PRADESH

Coringa wild life sanctuary is part of the Godavari mangroves, declared as a sanctuary in July 1978 to conserve the mangrove vegetation of the estuary extending in an area of about 235 km2. Coringa sanctuary is located between 16o-30' to 17o00' N latitudes and 82o-14' to 82o-23' E longitudes in East Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh. The sanctuary can be visited from Chollangi, Matlapalem or Ramannapalem on Kakinada to Yanam road at about 10-15 km distance from Kakinada.

In Coringa region, the Godavari River divides into two major distributaries at Dowaliswaram near Rajahmundry. These distributaries are Gautami-Godavari and Vasista-Godavari. The Gautami joins the sea at Kapileswarapuram (Coringa) about 53 km upstream from 'Vrudha". The vast deltaic regions of Krishna and Godavari in Andhra Pradesh support the luxuriant growth of mangroves due to their alluvial rich deposits. Mangroves occur at about 200 km2 area in Krishna and Godavari delta. Two major wild life sanctuaries such as Krishna wild life sanctuary in Krishna delta and Coringa wild life sanctuary in Corangi estuary are located in this region.


Table 7: Environmental Problems related to various activities in vicinity
of Bird sanctuary of Andhra Pradesh

S. No.

Wild Life Habitats

Wetland/ water bodies

Activities

Environmental Problems

1.

Coringa Wild life Sanctuary, East Godavari District

River Godavari upstream at Aryapuram Rajahmundry

Drinking water Intake at upstream of this location. Leaf litter, solid waste dumping site on the bank of river, washing ghat, domestic wastewater seapage from residential area. Temple, Domestic & Industrial waste discharge, Nallah channel join at downstream of location

  • Unhygienic conditions at the site
  • Water quality deterioration on downstream reaches.

River Godavari downstream at Dowaileswaram

Washing, bathing and religious activities, fishing, Irrigation canal off take, boating etc.

  • Water quality is subjected to human influences.

2.

Coringa wild life Sanctuary

River Corangi

Aquaculture, Prawns and fish ponds, Transportation through motor Boats, Nursery of Mangrove forest, Medicinal Plants, Mangrove have been exploited for highly valued products like timber for boat building, Bark for tanning, seeding for wood etc. Mangrove and wetland plants have been used as fodder and fuel by local villagers. Digging channels at 12.5 m. Taking up of large scale afforestation of banks

  • Silting and sludge deposition in water body,
  • Profuse growth of water hyacinth & other aquatic weeds due to surface run offs and drainage from surroundings
  • Surface drainage from Aquaculture and fish ponds using fish food and fertilizers
  • Noise generated through Motor Boats affect wild life, Birds habitats
  • Habitat destruction due to deforestation activities
  • Digging channels near water body enhances silting through run off during high tides.

River Gaderu

Fish landing Jetty, commercial fishing, crabs, prawns, shells of molluscs used as raw material for calcium carbide industry etc. Fishermen habitation on the bank, fish ponds, aquaculture, confluence to River Godavari and Bay of Bengal at downstream.

  • Silting in water body
  • Salinity intrusion
  • Solid waste dumping from commercial fishing,
  • Automobile waste from Motor Boats.
  • Surface run off and domestic waste
  • Discharge from Savitri Nagar Village

3.

Kolleru wild life Sanctuary, West Godavari District

Godavari Canal at Downstream of Hydel project Chettipeta, West Godavari District Nanidadavole

Hydel power generation, fishing, irrigation for cultivation all along the canal. The canal water ultimately joins Kolleru lake. Bathing, washing activities, Industrial cooling

  • Heavy flow and deep water body
  • Canal banks are unprotected and open for surface run offs from adjacent cultivated lands.
  • Artificial substratum of water body.

4.

Kolleru Lake

½ km after Circar channel at Alapadu

Boating, fish pond, Aquaculture, cultivation, Transportation through Motor Boats, Storage of fish food, prawns fertilizer bags etc. habitats for Birds, on wetland plant saccharam, tourism, deforestation

  • Pumping water from Kolleru lake and Tube well for fish pond and aquaculture
  • Surface run offs contri-buting to water quality.
  • Motor Boats producing noise
  • Habitats destruction for Birds, water Hyacinth & weed growth
  • Silting is water body

Sringavarapupadu

Culture of white lotus, macrophytes, vegetables, Birds habitat, Wetland plant saccharam, fish pond, prawns aquaculture, finishing, Boating, Drainage from villages.

  • Profuse growth of water hyacinth and other macrophytic weeds etc.
  • Surface run offs from villages and fishing,
  • Aquaculture activities
  • Silting in water body

Circar channel at Alapadu run off wooden Bridge

Transportation through motor Boats, commercial fishing, fish ponds, aquaculture, Palm tree cultivation, Habitats for Birds, Burning of wetland plants saccharam deforestation

  • Bore well water and Kolleru lake water is used for fish ponds and Aquaculture
  • Surface run offs joins Kolleru lake water.
  • Habitat destruction for birds due to burning activities
  • Silting in water body

Kolletikota

Burning wetland plant, deforestation, Transport through motor Boats, pumping water for fish pond, cultivation, aquaculture etc. Drainage of surface run off from villages. Habitats for Birds

  • Silting in water bodies
  • Lowering of water level
  • Habitat (Bird nests) destruction due to transport by motor boats
  • Noise and air quality affects bird’s normal behaviour
  • Dry wetland plants catch fire
  • Profuse growth of water hyacinth and other macrophytic vegetations.

Upputeru outlet Drain

Washing, cultivation, fish pond kolleru lake outlet discharge. Fishing, Boating, Habitat for Birds

  • Profuse growth of water hyacinth, silting in water body.

Polaraju Drain

Road traffic, Electrical High tension wires, Domestic wastewater. Surface run off join Kolleru lake. Fish ponds, fish trop in the water body, Birds habitat, water body used as raw water for fish pond and cultivation, Deforestation.

  • Domestic waste water and surface run off join Kolleru lake
  • Silting in water body
  • Excessive water Hyacinth and duckweed, azola etc.
  • Infestation on lotus plantation
  • Habitat destruction
  • Noise levels due to traffic High tension wires prevent proper movement of birds

Compounding of Industrial waste with sewage and agricultural run offs directly joining Kolleru lake.

  • Abstraction of water for fish pond affects the water level.
  • Eutrophication

Chinaedlagadi Drain

Drain carrying surface run off and domestic wastewater join Kolleru lake. Road traffic, water abstraction for fish pond, cultivation. Birds habitat, Deforestation, fish trap used in water body

  • Excessive growth of water hyacinth, Duckweed and other wetland plants
  • Noise levels affect birds
  • Silting in water body of Kolleru lake
  • Water quality deterioration due to abstraction for fish pond
  • Eutrophication.

Pedaedlagadi

Domestic wastewater discharge surface run offs, Boating for transport of construction material, feed and fertilizer for fish and aquaculture. Bird’s habitats, deforestation traffic, High tension wire (Electrical) on road side.

  • Silting in water body
  • Habitat destruction due to noise of traffic
  • Deforestation
  • Electrical wires across the roads, water quality deterioration due to surface run offs and excessive growth of water hyacinth, duckweed etc.
  • Water abstraction for fish ponds affect the water level in wetlands.

5

Manjira Barrage

River Manjira

Wild life sanctuary, Raw water intake for Hyderabad Metro water supply and sewerage Board. Phase II water and treatment plant at Kalabgoor. Forestry, Rain water Harvesting, Agriculture, Irrigation, fishing and tourism. Habitat for aquatic fauna and flora.

  • Lack of water during non-monsoon period,
  • Deforestation
  • Silting in water body
  • Aquatic weed growth
  • Habitat destruction due to various human influences.

 

The rich mangroves of Coringa wild life are fed by two important tributaries of Gautami Godavari i.e. River Gaderu and River Corangi, which ultimately drain into Kakinada Bay. The mangrove provides different niches for variety of animal populations such as smooth Indian otters. The sanctuary has an unique distinction of having 18 km. long sand spit in the North Eastern side, where the species of Olive Ridley sea turtle (Endangered species) nests during January-March every year. Apart from these animals, mangroves invariably attract large population of birds, which feed on various organisms inhabiting in the mangrove forest and in the backwaters. During low tide, some of the areas are exposed (elevated mud flats having small fishes, shrimps, molluscs) attracting avifauna for its feed. Over 120 species of birds have been reported so far. The most common variety of avifauna are - Little Egret, Cattle Egret, Pied Kingfisher,


Small blue kingfisher, Black capped kingfisher, Pond Heron, Reef Heron, Grey Heron, Night Heron, Little stine, Sand piper, Red shrank, Red wattle Lapwing, Pheasant, Flamingos, Seagulls, Purple Heron and Little Cormorants.

Table 8: Bio-Monitoring of Wetland of Coringa Wild Life in East Godavari District of Andhra Pradesh

S.

No.

Wetland

Location on water body/ Wetland

Temperature oC

Saprobic score

Diversity Score

BWQC

Biological Water Quality

Air

Water

1.

River Godavari upstream

Arya puram at

Raja mundry

29.5

31.0

4.5

0.35

D

Highly Polluted

2.

River Godavari Downstream

Dowaileswaram

28.5

31.0

4.71

0.47

C

Moderate Pollution

3.

Godavari Canal

Downstream Hydal Power Plant at Chettipeta

35.5

31.5

6.0

0.44

C

Moderate Pollution

4.

River Corangi at Lowtide

Ramanapalam East Godavari District

27.5

26.5

5.6

0.31

C

Moderate Pollution

5.

River Gaderu

Savitri Nagar Yanam

29.0

31.0

6.0

0.48

C

Moderate Pollution


WETLANDS OF RIVER YAMUNA, PAKSHI VIHAR AT OKHLA BARRAGE, DELHI

Delhi is situated on the bank of river Yamuna between latitude 28"23'17" North - 28o 53'000 North and 76o50'24" East-77o20'37" East. Delhi is the part of Indo-Gangetic Alluvial plains at an elevation ranging from 198 m to 220 m above the mean sea level. The area in Delhi sprawls to an extent of 1488 km2 (148, 300 ha) of terrain. Delhi is surrounded by Uttar Pradesh State on the eastern side and Haryana to the North, South and West. Two major landform systems converge here - the Ganga plain and Ridge. The later is an extension of Rajasthan's Aravalli ranges. The major wild life habitats in Delhi are mainly Pakshi Vihar at Okhla Barrage on River Yamuna, Najafgarh Drain. The resident and migratory birds such as Gees, Teal, Coot, Pintail, Spot Bill, Pochard, Surkhab, Wigeon, Pelican, Alwar, Godwall, Malard, Open wild Stork, Cormorant, Sarus crane, Painted Stork, White breasted kingfisher, Bee Eater, Egret, Heron, Purple Moorhen have been observed at these wild life habitats.

River Yamuna near Delhi has been identified as internationally important wetland, declared as Ramsar Site. Okhla barrage is located near village Madanpur Khadar and Jaitpur, 20 km downstream from Wazirabad Barrage at upstream. At Okhla Barrage the water of River Yamuna is completely blocked and diverted to Agra canal. The Barrage has been constructed in a catchment area of 17930 km2. This portion of the barrage is under control of U.P. Irrigation Department. At this location, River Yamuna receive discharges from various drains such as Maharani Bagh Drain, Tugalakabad Drain and Kalkaji Drain. A portion of River Hindon water from Ghaziabad (U.P) joins upstream Okhla Barrage through Hindon cut. Okhla Pakshi Vihar is situated in Ghaziabad District of Uttar Pradesh on River Yamuna in between Okhla Barrage and Okhla weir. Pakshi Vihar is 3 km from NOIDA in U.P. and 1.5 km from famous Jamia Milia Islamia University. The entire area of Pakshi Vihar was developed in year 1990 and spread to area of 400 hactare. The area is a tourist resort during November to February. Minimum temperature of 5oC and maximum of 47oC has been reported at this place.


Table 9: Bio-Monitoring of Wetlands of River Yamuna, Pakshi Vihar
at Okhla Barrage, Delhi

S. No

Wetland

Month/ Year

Temperature oC

Saprobic Score

Diversity

Score

BWQC

Biological Water Quality

Air

Water

1.

Okhla Barrage

November 2001

22.5

24.5

5.2

0.78

C

Moderate Pollution

2.

Okhla Barrage

December 2001

-

-

4.67

0.80

C

Moderate Pollution

3.

Okhla Barrage

January 2002

23.0

17.0

4.5

0.5

C

Moderate Pollution



WETLANDS OF NAJAFGARH DRAIN, CHHAWLA, DELHI

Delhi Tourism Department, Govt. of India, had identified this site for Chhawla Water World and Ecopark development. However, recently the site has been protected for development of Bird Sanctuary. A number of birds have been observed at the upstream location of Najafgarh drain from Chhawla upto Dhansa regulator. The water level is maintained by the Irrigation and Flood Control, Dept. of Delhi Government. Chhawla is located on Bijwasan-Najafgarh Road at about 10 kilometer from Gurgaon NH-8 on Rajokri crossing. Najafgarh drain receives wastewater from Mundella Drain joining upstream of Chhawla at Kanganheri. Najafgarh drain originates as Dhansa outfall channel from Dhansa regulator located in Dhansa village in South-West of NCT-Delhi near Gurgaon border. Due to storage of water at Dhansa, the water body is stagnant at off take point. The catchment area of Dhansa Regulator/Bund obtains fresh water from drain coming from Jahazgarh Jheel, Sahibi Nadi and Catchment area lying in Lohat and Mundakhera in Gurgaon. Dhansa outfall channel terminates into Najafgarh Jheel. The catchment area of Najafgarh Jheel spreads in Delhi-Gurgaon border located 1-2 km distance from Jhatikra. Najafgarh Jheel is the largest surface water body in Delhi, spread over in an area of 6 km. This natural depression obtains fresh water from west of ridge, north of Karnal and from the catchment area lying in Gurgaon. Najafgarh channel was dug out from the Najafgarh Jheel during the year 1938 joining to the River Yamuna at downstream of Wazirabad barrage. The water quality of Najafgarh drain upto Chhawla supports wide range of aquatic fauna and flora including birds, fishes etc. The water is used for irrigation by direct pumping into adjacent cultivated lands of wheat, vegetables etc. MCD tube well adjacent to Najafgarh drain is used for drinking purpose by BSF colonies. Up to Kakraula regulator, Najafgarh drain receives several outfalls from sewage treatment plant.

Najafgarh Drain is canalized after Bharat Nagar upto confluence to River Yamuna at Downstream Wazirabad Barrage .

Table 10: Bio monitoring of Wetlands of Najafgarh drain in Delhi at Chhawla Eco-Park

S. No.

Wetlands

Location

Temperature 0C

Saprobic Score

Diversity Score

BWQC

Biological water Quality

Air

Water

1.

Najafgarh Drain

Dhansa Regulator at Dhansa village

20.0

15.0

5.26

0.55

C

Moderate Pollution

2.

Najafgarh Jheel

1 ½ km U/s of Jhatikra on Gurgaon Border

23.0

16.0

5.0

0.22

D

High Pollution

3.

Najafgarh Drain

Jhatikra on Delhi-Gurgaon Border Near Bridge

23.0

17.0

5.0

0.9

C

Moderate Pollution

4.

Chhawla Eco-park on Najafgarh Drain

Chhawla, Guest House of Irrigation and Flood Control Department

17.0

23.0

5.3

0.82

C

Moderate Pollution

5.

Najafgarh Drain

Goela Dairy Police check Post

19.5

14.5

5.1

0.6

C

Moderate Pollution

Kakrola Regulator

22.0

16.0

4.3

0.24

D

High Pollution

D/s Uttam Nagar Police Check post

23.0

18.0

4.5

0.25

D

High Pollution

U/s Keshopuram STP outfall

-

-

2.0

0.32

D

High Pollution

D/s Keshopuram STP outfall

24.0

18.0

0.0

0.0

E

Severe Pollution

Basaidarapur, Ashok Vihar, Bharat Nagar

-

-

0.0

0.0

E

Severe Pollution

 

Table 11: Environmental Problems related to various activities in vicinity of wild life Habitats in Delhi

S. No.

Wild life Habitat

Wetland/ Location

Activities

Environmental Problems

1.

Pakshi Vihar

River Yamuna at Okhla Barrage.

Tourist Resort, Bird watching, fishing, Habitat for migratory birds. Supply of Irrigation water to Agra Canal. Cattle wading, cultivation

  • Profuse growth of water Hyacinth
  • Waste water discharge from U.P. and Drains of Delhi
  • Silting and sludge deposition
  • Water quality deterioration

2.

Chhawla Eco park

Najafgarh Drain at Dhansa Regulator

Run off from Jahazgarh Jheel, Sahibi Nadi and catchment area lying in Gurgaon., grazing, fishing, Origin of Drain No.6 cultivation etc. Cattle wading. Habitat for migratory Birds

  • Silting, stagnation of water body due to lack of water in the catchment of Dhansa Regulator
  • Water Hyacinth
  • Deforestation
  • Lack of fresh water source during non-monsoon period salinity intrusion

Najafgarh Jheel

Cultivation in the adjacent-fields in Gurgaon. Habitat for birds, STP outfall from Haryana, Solid waste dumping, Eichornia and other weed growth. Open defecation, grazing etc. Road Transport

  • Water quality deterioration
  • Surface run offs
  • Noise due to vehicles passing Haryana border
  • Silting and sludge deposition in water body
  • Obstruction in flow of water
  • Absence of desludging & deweeding activity
  • Salinity problem
  • Water Hyacinth growth

Najafgarh Drain at Jhatikra

Vehicular activities on Delhi Gurgaon Border, Habitats for birds, grazing, cultivation, Irrigation. Solid waste dumping

  • Increasing noise levels
  • Water quality affected due to surface run off
  • Silting and sludge deposition
  • Solid waste dumping
  • Habitat destruction
  • Salinity problem clogging of drain
  • Water hyacinth growth

Chhawla Eco park in Najafgarh drain

Eco park development of bird sanctuary by Irrigation and flood Dept. Forestry, vehicle passing through the Road Bridge. Open defecation, solid waste Habitat for Birds scavengers

  • Silting and sludge deposition
  • Low flow in water body
  • Profuse growth of duckweed water hyacinth & macrophytic vegetation.
  • Clogging of drain obstruct in flow of water
  • Salinity problem

 

WETLANDS OF KASHMIR VALLEY (JAMMU & KASHMIR)

The wetlands in Kashmir Valley are of significant importance for sustenance of wide array of bio-diversity inhabiting them. The vast network of fresh water, marshy wetlands and depressions in the valley of Kashmir still possess pre-historic importance. Most of them are of post-glacial age. The high attitude fresh water lakes are fed by snow and rainfed streams, rivulets and rivers originate from mountain system of the great Himalayas on the eastern edge of the Valley and the Pir Panjal range extending along the western and south western parts and mostly located in the centre of valley. The River Jehlum is the source of major wetland of Wullar Lake designated as Ramsar site by Government of India as "Wetland of International Importance". River Jehlum flowing from south east to north west, is drained during floods into several inland depression. The major wetlands in the valley are Narkara, Hokera, Mirgund, Shallabugh, Hygam, Dal Lake, Manasbal, Wular etc., which provide an extensive over-wintering resorts, excellent cover and safe roosting and feeding grounds to wide and rich variety of geese, ducks and rails which arrive just at the onset of autumn migrating from Palaearctic breeding grounds. The temporary wetlands buffer the permanent bird refuses for a large number of other birds both migratory and residents during summer. They also serve sites for shelter during night feeding on the left over paddy after harvesting. There are several high land lakes fall on to and fro fly-way route of these wintering visitors both at the time of in and outward migration, but their use by these birds is still unknown.



The Willow (Salix alba) groves and Popular trees (Populus sp.) extending along the peripheries of wetlands are valuable resources of fuel, fodder, timber and material to the wicker work, besides provide roosting and nesting cover to both land and water birds. The residue of the dead aquatic flora and hydrophytic plants (humus) of the littoral zone provides `Demb', which is extensively used for fuel purposes. Intensive harvesting of Typha angustata and Sparganium ramosum for making mats and Pharagmites communis and Nymphoides pellatum for fodder affect the holding capacity of the wetlands, as they provide food and cover niches to the water birds. Floating gardens present in them provide manure rich substratum for vegetation of crops. The geese, ducks and rails are found feeding, dabbling, resting or preening on floating gardens during late winter and early spring. The socio-economic importance of wetland to the people living in the close vicinity are exploitation of water chestnuts (Trapa natans); seeds of several plant species form an important food for the geese, ducks and rails.

The wetlands are presently under increasing pressure from over exploitation of resources, conversion to other land uses through drainage/river engineering schemes, fertile farmland or buried under refuse tips, pollution and degradation of catchments. It has greatly affected the population size of several water fowl species and discontinued stopover of many more including Common Cranes (Grus grus) in the valley over the years.

The overall water fowl status assessed from valley revealed the Common Teal (Anas crecca) as the most commonest species; Pintail (A. acuta), Mallard (A. platyrhynchos), Gadwall (A. ctripera), Wigeon (A. Penelope) and Coot (Fulica atra) as common, Garganay (Anas guerquedula), Greylag Goose (Anseranser), Shoveller (Anas clypeata), Red Crested Pochard (Netta rufine) and Common Pochard (Tadoma ferruginea), White-eyed Pochard (Aythya nyroca) and Tuffed Duck (A. fuligula) with a vulnerable status. The water fowl census conducted in sixteen wetlands during 1992 was repeated during winter session (September to April) with addition of new areas from time to time, to monitor population fluctuation over the season and population trend over the years, besides to evaluate their status in the valley.

These wetlands are weedy and extensive morass, bounded by thick willow (Salix sp.) groves with scattered stands of popular (Populus sp.). Whereas, some water bodies support Apple (Prunus sp.) Orchards as well. A definite type of vegetation ranging from sub-merged, attached, free floating and emergent aquatic vegetation of grasses, herbs, reeds and sedges are found in wetlands. Some of the important species are:

Typha angustata

Typha laximanii

Phragmites communis

Elecharis palustris

Sagittaria Sagitifolia

Saccharum spontaneum

Butomus umbellatus

Trapa natans

Myriophyllum verticillatum

Myriophyllum spicatum

Sparganium ramosum

Polygonum sp.

Nymphoides peltatum

Potamogeton sp.

Scripus sp.

Frimbistylis squarosa

Lemna gibba

Lemna minor

Lemna trisulea

Spirodella polyrhiza

Alisma plantagoaquatica

Menta longifolia etc.


The diverse land use by way of willow/popular plantations, orchards and paddy cultivation fringing the wetlands add food and spatial niches to fragile and productive ecosystem, paving way for rich and varied aquatic as well as terrestrial avifauna species both native and migratory (summer & winter). But the study sites of Hokera, Mirgund, Narkara, Chatlum and Manibugh still continue to be managed for organized shooting from November/December to April, every year, which has now been temporarily stopped for the past few years.

Protection to the wetland ecosystem and inhabiting avi-fauna is proposed through identification of adequate protected areas network by upgradation of Hokera as a sanctuary together with declaration of Manibugh - Kranchu, Lasjan, Narkara, Baba Shuku-r-din (Bathi/Raw Kach) as Sanctuaries.

Table 12: Geographical Details of Wetlands in Kashmir Valley

S. No.

Name of wetland

District

Altitude MSL

North Latitude

East Longitude

1.

Panzipora

Pulwama

1,607

330.52’

750.03’

2.

Manibugh

Pulwama

1,607

330.59’

740.56’

3.

Chatlum

Pulwama

1,593

340.01’

740.56’

4.

Dal Lake

Srinagar

1,585

340.05’

740.50’

5.

Narkara

Budgam

1,588

340.02’

740.45’

6.

Hokera

Budgam/Srinagar

1,584

340.05’

740.40’

7.

Mirgund

Badgam

1,583

340.07’

740.38’

8.

Mirgund Numbal

Baramulla

1,632

340.08’

740.39’


The water bodies of Manibugh-Kranchu, Lasjan, Narkara, Hokera and Mirgund sprawl over an area of 0.40 km2, 0.30 km2, 3.25 km2, 13.75 km2 and 4.00 km2 respectively.

All these wetlands are characterized by low water level that fluctuates greatly during the year in response to the natural discharge from their sources. Most of the wetlands except Chatlum and Manibugh are surrounded on all sides by paddy fields and excess water from these washes down alongwith various organic and inorganic constituents.

Table 13: Bio-monitoring of wetlands in Bird Sanctuaries of Kashmir Valley

S. No.

Wetlands

Location

Temperature 0C

Saprobic score

Diversity score

BWQC

Biological Water Quality

Air

Water

1.

Hokersar

Zaina Kote Sector 1, NH-1A

29.5

24.5

5.0

0.55

C

Moderate Pollution

2.

Mirgund

Mirgund, Noorabad

26.5

26.5

4.25

0.40

D

Heavy Pollution

3.

Narkara Nadru

Nadru, Army Air Port Road

23.5

25.5

5.33

0.45

C

Moderate Pollution

4.

Hygam

Hygam at Srinagar-Baramulla NH-1A

24.0

25.5

5.5

0.43

C

Moderate Pollution

5.

Ajas

Ajas, Srinagar-Bandipora Road

28.0

30.0

5.66

0.55

C

Moderate Pollution

6.

Manasbal

Manasbal near Kondabal

26.0

25.5

8.0

0.71

A

Clean

7.

Wullar

Haretare

31.0

-

5.6

0.78

C

Moderate Pollution

8.

Shallabugh

Shallabugh, Ganderbal

20.0

12.15

5.3

0.49

C

Moderate Pollution

9.

Panzipora

Kapore, Marhama, Srinagar-Jammu NH-1A

25.0

20.5

5.0

0.33

C-D

Moderate to Heavy Pollution

10.

Padgampora

Pulwama at Pulwama-Avantipora Road

31.0

25.0

3.4

0.84

C

Moderate Pollution

 

 

11.

Manibugh

Pampore, Galender, NH-1A

28.0

20.0

5.28

0.59

C

Moderate Pollution

12.

Chatlum Lalpore

Chatlum, NH-1A

25.0

25.0

5.3

0.42

C

Moderate Pollution

13.

Inner Dal Lake

Srinagar

24.0

24.5

4.75

0.46

D

Heavy Pollution

14.

Nagin Lake

Srinagar

24.5

26.0

5.4

0.61

C

Moderate Pollution

15.

River Sind

Mamer, Sonamarg-Srinagar Road

20.0

10.0

0.0

0.0

E

 

16.

River Sind Inner Nullah

Mamer Sonamarg-Srinagar Road

20.0

8.0

5.33

0.19

D

Heavy Pollution

17.

Thajiwas Glacier

Border of Sonamarg-Leh

10.0

2.0

7.4

0.30

A

Clean

18.

Dachigam Nullah

Srinagar

27.5

16.0

7.4

0.64

A

Clean

 

Table 14: Environmental Problems related to various activities
in vicinity of wildlife of Kashmir Valley

S. No.

Wildlife Habitat

Wetland location

Activities

Environmental Problems

1.

Hokersar’s (Hokera) wetland

Zaina Kote Sector 1, NH-1A

Fish farm, paddy cultivation, willow, popular tree plantation, grazing cattle, forest, Deweeding in wetland, domestic wastewater discharge, cattle farming, open defaecation, captive breeding of Bar headed goose. Over wintering resort for migratory birds.

Hard substraction due to Siltation, profuse weed growth, wild grass, habitat destruction for bird nesting, encroachment of paddy cultivation, water quality due to surface runoffs.

2.

Mirgund

Srinagar-Gulmarg Road

Mirgund, Noorabad

Paddy cultivation, abstraction of water, cattle wading, grazing, forest of popular tree & willow plantation for cottage industry, human settlement, cultivation of vegetables.

Encroachment of wetland catchment area, low level of water, Siltation, lack of nesting habitats profuse weed growth water quality due to decomposition of macrophytic vegetation.

3.

Narkara Nadru

Nadru, Army Air Port Road

Paddy cultivations, human settlement, solid waste dumping poaching, reclamation of land for paddy cultivation and vegetable cultivation in catchment, cattle, farming, domestic wastewater discharge. Traffic of air and roadways.

Uprooting of tree due to heavy snowfall and rains, Siltation due to flood channel of excessive growth of wild grass, habitat destruction for birds, water quality due to surface runoffs. Shrinking of wetland area. Bird hit to aero planes.

4.

Hygam

Hygam at Srinagar-Baramulla NH-1A

Residential colonies, Deweeding for cattle feed, illegal occupation by villagers, willow plantation, burning of dried grass, construction of bunds. Abstraction of water. Habitat for migratory birds, over growth of Wapaygrass, drain discharge from Ningli & Balkul nullah.

Shallow water body, Siltation, encroachment by paddy cultivation, lack of nesting habitat, over growth of wapay grass, replacing the fodder grass, tree felling due to heavy snow fall. Fish kills due to eutrophic condition in water body.

5.

Ajas

Ajas, Srinagar-Bandipora Road

Paddy fields, stone quarry grazing land, traffic adjacent to wetland, deforestation, surface drainage from surrounding and Waniyar nullah, Walnut plantation, Honey Bee cultivation, Brick formation

Low level of water, encroachment by paddy fields, Siltation, water scarcity during summer, lack of habitat for birds, water quality.

6.

Manasbal Lake

Manasbal near Kondabal

Tourism, boating, fish harvesting, private lotus cultivation, residential activities, stone quarry, lime klin, paddy cultivation, solid waste disposal at amusement park. Surface drainage to lake. Cultivation of Nadru and Euryale ferox salisb (rare aquatic plant).

Water quality, Siltation on the boundries, decomposition of aquatic weeds near residential settlement. Deep-water body profuse macrophytic submerged vegetation. Few benthic macro invertebrate populations.

7.

Lake Wullar

Haretare

Paddy cultivation, willow plantation, fishing, Deweeding encroachment of residential settlement, Kanihome drain discharge, illegal settlement on the bank, cattle forming, temporary bunds, drying of weeds in water body. Silviculture, captive fisheries, water chestnut, lotus rhizome, fish and fodder, egg hatchery of ducks and mass deweeding.

Shrinking of catchment area, Siltation, lowering of depth of water body, water quality due to drain water, development of floating lands, animal mortality due to floods, decomposition of profuse growth of macrophytic vegetation, lack of nesting habitats.

8.

Shallabugh

Shallabugh, Ganderbal

Cattle wading, Deweeding, fishing, flood water of river Sind joins wetland, drain water discharge from villages willow plantation for cottage sports industry, grazing lands, surface runoff.

Water quality, Siltation, profuse filamentous algal growth, due to willow tree, shrinking in catchment area and development of floating lands, low level of water, sedimentation.

9.

Panzipora

Kapore, Marhama, Srinagar

Paddy farming, cattle wading, willow & popular tree plantation for cottage industry of Bat making, deforestation, drainage of surface run offs from surrounding, quarries, stone crushing, lime kiln, human settlement, open defaecation. Irrigation canal running parallel, saffron cultivation, cement factory.

Encroachment in catchment area of wetland. Siltation, water quality, water scarcity, profuse duckweed growth, land reclamation for human settlement and cultivation.

10.

Padgampora

Pulwama-Avantipora Road, Seed Multiplication farm

Seed multiplication farm for cultivation of corn, paddy, cereals, beans and cattle feed seeds, willow plantation, air port, abstraction of water for paddy cultivation using high capacity pump, grazing, open defaecation. Water scarcity, saffron fields, almond cultivation, and cement industry, stone quarry.

Shrinking of catchment area of wetland, water scarcity, development of marshy land habitat destruction, noise levels, Siltation. Bird hit chances due to close vicinity of airport.

11.

Manibugh

Pampore, Galender, NH-1A

Paddy cultivation, apple, saffron, peas, apricot, maize, cherry, almonds and nuts plantation, willow tree plantation in surrounding, stone quarries, lime kiln, storage of petroleum product, bottling plant in the vicinity, deforestation. Drainage of surface run off.

Encroachment in catchment area, Siltation in wetland, habitat destruction, water quality, and profuse growth of duckweed, high-tension wire across the wetland, soil erosion.

12.

Chatlum Lalpore

Pampore on NH-1A near Chatlum, Dept. of Fisheries Govt. of India

Fish seed farming, cattle wading, human settlement, cultivation of saffron, maize, vegetables, bottle polythene bags, plastic alongwith solid waste dumping site. Heaps of cow dung used as fuel drain discharge, surface run offs, lotus cultivation.

Water quality of wetland, shrinking of catchment area, Siltation, decomposition of macrophytic vegetation, sedimentation

13.

Inner Dal Lake

Srinagar

Tourism, transport, commercial activity, domestic wastewater discharge, house boats, medical centres, de-sludging, Deweeding, floating aerators for cleaning, floating gardens,

Water quality, shrinking of lake area, Siltation, anaerobic and unhygienic conditions in canal, habitat destruction for fauna and flora, clusters of houseboats at one place. Heavy Siltation near sluice

14.

Nagin Lake

Srinagar, Hazarat Bal, Saderbal, Nagamala and Barhal area

Drinking water source, swimming, tourism, house boats, construction of bridge, waste water discharge of Rainawari area through canal deforestation, cultivation, floating gardens, Amir Khan nullah joining the lake, Transport, cottage industry of mats and ornamental items, construction of radh, dembs.

Development of peat lands, Siltation, profuse weed growth, lack of habitats for birds, water quality.

15.

River Sind Inner nullah

Mamer, Sonamarg-Srinagar Road

Turbulent river, Hydro-electric power generation, tourism, construction of cultivated lands, radh.

Sandy substratum of river, Siltation in Inner nullah, domestic waste discharge through surface run offs.

16.

Thajiwas Glacier

Border of Sonamarg-Leh

Origin of river Sind, Tourism, Transport through horse, pony etc. settlement of army (BSF) forest and Thajwas wildlife.

Horse and cattle dung, open defaecation, solid waste dumping through tourist activities use of polythenes bottles & plastic bags.

17.

Dachigam Nullah

Srinagar

Dachigam National Park, conservation of Hangul Deer endangered sp. Paddy cultivation, water reservoir in the vicinity, fishponds, swimming pool, Dachigam stream is main source of water to Dal lake.

Surface runoffs from Fishpond, swimming pool and cultivated lands.





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