Air Quality in Delhi
air quality monitoring conducted at different locations for a period of 24 hours
in Delhi revealed that suspended particulate matter (SPM), respirable particulate
matter (RSPM) and carbon monoxide are in high concentrations at all the monitoring
stations. Sulphur dioxide has been recorded within prescribed limit at all the
locations while Nitrogen dioxide was within limit at ITO, S.P.Marg, R.K.Puram
Crossing, Dr. Jakir Hussain Marg, Windsor Place, Pusa Road, Janpath, Rashtrapati
Bhawan, Ridge Area, Badli Industrial Area and Shahjada Bagh. The values of nitrogen
dioxide exceeded at Connaught Place and Race Course. Air pollutants were found
to increase between 8 AM to 11 AM and 4 PM to 9 PM. Ambient noise level was also
found higher than the prescribed limit at all the locations during peak traffic
Monitoring (By Passive Sampling Method) in Delhi and Kanpur
has been monitoring benzene in ambient air at seven locations in Delhi comprising
residential, industrial and commercial areas. The monthly average values observed
at all the locations vary between 16 to 35 microgrammes per cubic metre. Overall
mean benzene concentration for all seven locations has been calculated as 26 microgrammes
per cubic metre. This is 1.6 times higher than the United Kingdom's Annual Running
Mean Standard of 16 microgrammes per cubic metre.
The monthly average values observed in Kanpur varies between 7 to 41 microgrammes
per cubic metre. Overall mean benzene concentration for all five locations in
Kanpur was calculated as 22 microgrammes per cubic metre, which is 1.4 times higher
than the United Kingdom's Annual Running Mean Standard.
Benzene monitoring was carried out using BTEX Analyzer (Benzene, Toluene, Ethyl
benzene, o,m,p-Xylene) at ITO and at CPCB premises. Higher levels were observed
of Benzo(a)Pyrene in Delhi
for Benzo(a)pyrene in ambient air particulate samples collected at six locations
in Delhi indicate that the annual average ranged between 1.0 ng/m3
to 5.3 ng/m3 from 1997 to 1999. The recommended standard for concentration
of B(a)P in ambient air is 10 ng/m3. The concentration of B(a)P during
winter season was generally higher as compared to monsoon and summer. Low concentration
of B(a)P was recorded during summer possibly due to photo-oxidation and meteorological
conditions favouring the dispersal of B(a)P. During monsoon, rain and washout
are possible reasons for the low B(a)P.
Noise Level and Air Pollution during Deepawali
noise level monitoring was carried out at various locations in Delhi, i.e. Patel
Nagar, AIIMS, Connaught Place, India Gate, Lajpat Nagar, Mayur Vihar, New Friends
Colony and East Arjun Nagar on occasion of Deepawali festival. The ambient noise
levels were above the prescribed limits but were slightly lower at few locations
as compared with the previous year's data.
air quality monitoring was also carried out at ITO intersection, Ashok Vihar,
East Patel Nagar and Pusa Road. SO2 levels were higher in the evening
on Deepawali day and pre-Deepawali day. NOx and CO levels were observed lower
on the Deepawali day as compared with the pre-Deepawali day.
of PM10 (RSPM) in Kanpur
air quality monitoring of PM10 in Kanpur was conducted. Status
of PM10 is being worked out with reference to developing a control
strategy for PM10 under the World Bank Assisted Programme. The
monitoring of PM10 is being conducted with the objective to
determine status of PM10 in ambient air of Kanpur and to assess
the content of sulphate in PM10. The monitoring was started
a 6 locations in Kanpur in July 2000 by CPCB and in September 2000 by the National
Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI) at three locations. The Uttar
Pradesh Pollution Control Board is measuring PM 10 at 3 locations
in Kanpur since April 2000. The frequency of monitoring has been maintained twice
in a month, and the following parameters were planned for monitoring: RSPM, SO2
and Sulphate. The maximum & minimum concentrations of RSPM & SO2
at different locations monitored are presented below:
Average RSPM (m
| || ||Maximum||Minimum||Maximum||Minimum|
Deputy Ka Parao
values of SO2 are within norms but RSPM exceeds far in excess of the
Assurance for Air Quality Measurements
Central Pollution Control Board has set up a dynamic dilution system (Ring Test
Facility) to produce gas mixtures of any desired concentration and composition.
The primary objective of developing this system is to conduct quality assurance
programme for participating laboratories as well as to calibrate continuous monitoring
analyzers. Participation in the quality assurance programme helps the laboratory
in achieving compatibility of results and to validate the method being adopted
for the measurement. CPCB has been conducting the quality assurance programme
for State Pollution Control Boards since 1999. During March 2000, officials from
seven State Pollution Control Boards took part in AQC programme for measurement
of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide by wet chemical methods. On analysing
the results, it was observed that the performance of 90% of the participating
laboratories was satisfactory.
Figure 1: RSPM (Annual Average) in various Cities in India during 1999
of Respirable Suspended Particulate Matter (RSPM) in Selected Cities
RSPM levels in residential and industrial areas in selected cities are presented
in Figure 1. RSPM levels exceeded the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)
(annual average) in residential areas of all the monitored cities. Also, RSPM
levels exceeded the NAAQS (annual average) in industrial areas of all the monitored
cities except Visakhapatnam, Cochin, Mumbai and Chennai. The Respirable Suspended
Particulate Matter violated 24 hourly average RSPM Standard at all the monitored
locations except Industrial estate, Visakhapatnam. The trend in annual concentration
of RSPM at BSZ Marg, (ITO Intersection) New Delhi is depicted in Figure 2. RSPM
levels exceeded the NAAQS (annual average) during 1998, 1999 and 2000 at BSZ Marg,
the target sampling of 24 hours in a day could not be fulfilled at all the locations
due to the power failures etc., the values monitored for 16 hours and more are
considered as representative values for assessing the ambient air quality for
a day. The target frequency of monitoring twice a week, 104 days in a year could
not be met in some of the locations, in such cases, 40 and more days of monitoring
in a year is considered adequate for the purpose of data analysis.
Figure -2 Annual Mean Concentration of RSPM at B.S.Z Marg (ITO Intersection) New
of Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) Levels in Delhi
trend in annual mean concentration of SO2, at Bahadurshah Zafar Marg.
(ITO Intersection), New Delhi is shown in Figure 3. The annual mean
concentration of SO2 did not exceed the NAAQS (annual average)
during all years of monitoring. Decreasing trend in SO2
levels is observed which is attributable to low sulphur diesel introduced in Delhi.
Figure 3: Trend in Annual Average of SO2 at BSZ Marg (ITO Intersection),
in Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) levels in Delhi
trend in annual mean concentration of NO2 at BSZ Marg (ITO Intersection),
New Delhi is depicted in Figure 4. Decreasing trend in NO2 levels is
observed, which might be due to prohibition in plying of more than 15 - year old
commercial vehicles in Delhi.
Figure 4: Trend in Annual Average of NO2 at BSZ Marg
of Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) in Delhi
trend in annual mean concentration of SPM at BSZ Marg (ITO Intersection) is shown
in Figure 5. SPM levels exceeded the NAAQS (annual average) during all the years.
in Carbon Monoxide (CO) levels in Delhi
in annual mean concentration of CO at BSZ Marg (ITO Intersection), New Delhi is
shown in Figure 6.
quality, with regard to Sulfur Dioxide (SO2), Oxides of Nitrogen (NO2)
and Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) in industrial and residential locations
in various cities/town was monitored during the reported period and evaluated
on the basis of Exceedence Factor (EF) in terms of low, moderate, high and critical.
Figure 6: Annual Average Concentration of CO(mg/m3) at BSZ Marg (ITO), New Delhi
Quality Index for Public Information
Air Quality Index (AQI) has been developed in collaboration with the Indian Institute
of Technology, Kanpur based on the dose-response relationship of various pollutants.
A minimum number of three pollutant parameters (Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM),
Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) and Nitrogen Dioxide ( NO2) are essential
to calculate the AQI. Any additional information on other pollutants such as Respirable
Particulate Matter (RSPM or PM10), Carbon Monoxide (CO) and Ozone (O3)
are included to calculate conclusive and complete value of AQI. The developed
index is classified in five categories: Good (0-100), Moderate (101-200), Poor
(201-300), Very poor (301-400) and severe (401-500).
present the AQI to general public through mass media (e.g. TV, Internet, Newspaper,
radio etc.), a website has become functional (http://home.iitk.ac.in/~mukesh).
The website is capable of producing online and historical AQI values for any specified
city and location with potential health effects. The special feature of the website
is multiple windows system with animation to facilitate inter/intra city comparison
of air quality.
of Environmental Management Plan for Taj–Trapezium Zone (TTZ)
protect the National Heritage site at Agra and its nearby areas, the Ministry
of Environment & Forests had formed an Authority for prevention and control
of pollution in the zone. Alongwith pollution prevention activities by other organisations,
CPCB took up the activity to prepare the Environmental Management Plan for the
entire Zone. The work was initiated in September 2000 and is expected to be concluded
by March 2002. The assigned activity is in progress with financial assistance
from the World Bank.
work has been divided in two phases viz. City level Planning and Regional Level
Planning. In the city level planning, among other activities, the thematic maps
in respect of drainage, water resources, road network, tourist places, solid waste,
environmental resources maps have been prepared. In case of Regional Planning
Forest, Natural drainage, Contour, Tourist site, settlement and heritage site
maps etc. have been prepared. For analysis of the data and its digitization, Geographical
Information System (GIS) is proposed to be used.
pollution and Human Health
collaboration with the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), a project
has been initiated on the effect of ambient air quality on human health in Delhi.
Preliminary survey indicated that CO levels in blood among smokers, factory workers
and petrol pump workers are higher and symptoms related to adverse impact on respiratory,
cardio-vascular and nervous system were observed.
Activities in Air Quality Evaluation and Pollution Control
- Review of the
present air quality monitoring network is under progress. There is a proposal
to increase the number of monitoring stations.
Report on "Air Quality Status of the city of Delhi" was prepared.
Report on "Air Quality Status and Trends in India" was prepared and published
CPCB Website (http://www.cpcb.nic.in/) regularly updated with respect to weekly
air quality data of ITO intersection, Delhi
Measurement of 15 polyaromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air of Delhi has been undertaken
Monitoring of ambient ozone at ITO intersection, New Delhi is continued
Two fixed and one mobile continuous automatic ambient air quality monitoring stations
operated in Delhi, where SPM, SO2, NO2, NOx,
CO are recorded
Seven stations in Bangalore were monitored for measurement of RSPM, SPM, SO2
and NOx at important traffic intersections of Bangalore City.
Pollutants like SPM, RSPM, SO2, NOx, PAH and lead were monitored at
13 traffic intersections in Calcutta.