CHAPTER X

ENVIRONMENTAL STANDARDS INCLUDING SCHEDULE
FOR THEIR ENFORCEMENT

10.1 REVIEW OF ENVIRONMENTAL STATEMENTS

The Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India issued notification for submission of ‘Environmental Statements’ (ES) by the industries to the respective State Pollution Control Boards (SPCBs) in April, 1992 and further amended it in April, 1993. ES is a pro-active tool for self-assessment of the industry itself to reduce/minimise pollution by adopting process modifications, recycling and reuse of the resources. The regular submission of ES will indicate the systematic improvement in conservation of resources and environmental pollution control being achieved by the industry. ES can also be used as a set of environmental performance indicators for relative comparison, implementation and to promote better practices.

In order to assess the ES, a project has been taken-up by the Ministry of Environment & Forests for "Review of Environmental Statements Submitted by the industries" and this is being undertaken by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB). CPCB, in turn, has included Experts with respect to eleven sectors: i) tanneries ii) bulk-drug industries iii) thermal power stations iv) sugar industries v) cement industries vi) iron & steel plants vii) textile industries viii) pesticides industries ix) petrochemical plants x) pulp & paper industries and xi) oil refineries. The review for sugar industry has been completed and others are in the process of finalisation. The outcome of the exercise has been utilised for setting environmental benchmarks for attainment by all the industries. A similar exercise is being done in other sectors also, to promote systematic improvement.


10.2 DEVELOPMENT OF RATIONALE FOR PRESCRIBING LOCATION SPECIFIC STANDARDS

The Central Pollution Control Board took up a project to study the existing practices in prescribing stringent location specific standards by various State Pollution Control Boards and to develop a rationale for the same.

For application of the strategy for location specific standards in the field, two sites In Andhra Pradesh have been chosen i.e. one at Rajahmundry, where plenty of dilution available in the river (Godavari) and the other at Patancheru, where limited dilution available in the river (Manjeera) and large number of industries are situated.

Under this programme, emphasis has been given to assess the assimilative capacity of the environment with respect to air and water pollution. Several models have been reviewed for their suitability and a compilation of the above studies coupled with choice of control technologies, affordability is being considered to formulate rationale. In this process, the experiences of developed countries are being taken through Wisconsin University, USA.

These studies will suggest rationale to be followed in areas where the ambient requirements demand stricter standards.

10.3 CONTROL OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN INDUSTRIAL EMISSIONS

The Central Pollution Control Board has identified Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), as one of the parameters in industrial emissions, which needs to be controlled to protect the quality of the receiving environment. Considering usage of various solvents and other raw materials in chemical and other specific industries, there is a need to specify control parameters, to govern the volatile compounds.

The selected industrial sectors such as oil refineries, petrochemicals, drugs & pharmaceuticals, pesticides and electronic industries are being studied for existing control measures for VOCs in order to suggest choice of better control technologies/practices to evolve common minimum programme.

Besides, with respect to hazardous air pollutants, there is a need to change the fittings such as valves, pumps, joints, etc which eliminates fugitive emissions due to leakages. A Leak detection and repair (LDAR) programme is required to be introduced. With this understanding, guidelines/norms are being developed.

10.4 DEVELOPMENT OF TOXICITY FACTOR AS A GOVERNING PARAMETER

The cumulative governing parameters are preferred in environmental sampling such as AOx for all halides. Synergistic and Antagonistic effects of different combination of pollutants will not be addressed, if individual standards are prescribed for each pollutant, thus The governing parameters indicate the necessity of having detailed analysis of each constituent and as such represent the cumulative effects. Thus, such parameters are encouraged for regulatory purpose for ease in checking the compliance. Therefore, with the same perception, a common parameter to represent the toxicity has been developed by the Central Pollution Control Board i.e. Toxicity Factor. It is defined as the dilution factor of the effluent at which 100% survival of Zebra fish (Brachidanio rerio - Hamilton Buchanan) ensured for 48 hours. Means, toxicity factor 1 represents the effluent sample without dilution with water, Toxicity factor 2 represents addition of same amount of water with the effluent (1:1); Toxicity Factor 4 represents (1:3 – one part effluent and 3 parts of water) etc.

The tests for Toxicity factor have been carried out with respect to wastewaters arising from pesticides, bulk-drugs, dye & dye intermediates, textiles and tanneries. The results have been processed statistically to assess the present percent level of achievement by the respective industrial sectors.

10.5 NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR PETROCHEMICAL PLANTS

Air emissions from a petrochemical complex are crucial with respect to pollution control as some emissions are hazardous in nature. Fugitive air emissions from pumps, valves, flanges, storage tanks, loading and unloading operations, and wastewater treatment accounts for 85 to 95 % of total hydrocarbon emissions and are of major concern, due to its volume and carcinogenic nature. Therefore, in order to prioritise the pollution control programme, air pollutants from petrochemical industries have been classified into high, medium, and priority pollutants.

Besides the control technologies, in respect of combustion, process, fugitive, emissions, and flare management have been reviewed for their suitability. The technical inputs from the expatriate experts is also being taken to strengthen the process development of techno-economically feasible standards.

10.6 CONTROL OF ACID MIST FROM SULPHURIC ACID PLANTS

Sulphuric Acid plants emit oxides of sulphur and acid mist in the atmosphere. Presently emission limits are prescribed as 4.0 kg/tonne of concentrated acid produced for SOx and 50 mg/nm3 for acid mist. A study was undertaken to study the possibilities of technology upgradation in existing sulphuric acid plants and use of state-of-the-art technology in new plants to further reduce and control oxides of sulphur and acid mists.

10.7 NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR PESTICIDES MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

In pesticides industry, pollution generates in all forms i.e. emissions, wastewater and solid/hazardous waste due to thermodynamic limitations, incomplete reaction, failure of stoichiometric requirement of raw material in the process operation, impurities present in raw materials, etc. Gaseous emissions could be channelized i.e. coming out through vent/stack from specific production process or fugitive in nature (leaks spills etc.), containing several gaseous pollutants. Handling of emissions being sensitive with respect to impact, the emphasis is often given to adopt appropriate pollution control technologies.

Pesticides industry is critical in terms of nature of raw material usage and final products/by-products, which demands special care/attention. It is well established that the process of development of industry-specific-standards consider techno-economic feasibility as the criteria. This criteria demands the review of technologies for control of pollutants emanating from the industries and cost implications due to pollution control equipments and bearing on health & environment. Therefore, looking at the complexity the findings of the study, have been reviewed to suggest the best practices being followed in advanced countries, and options for improvement in terms of technologies (best available & best practicable) suitable to Indian pesticide industries.

The Central Board has identified priority pollutants, control technologies, efficiency of control and presently achievable standards. Besides studying the existing technologies, a review of best available technologies has been made through an expatriate consultant considering the best practicable technologies, while considering the economic feasibility for the purpose of arriving at suitable emission standards. The standards proposed will be finalised through consultation process.

10.8 EMISSION/NOISE STANDARDS FOR GENERATOR SETS

Noise Limits for Diesel Generator Sets

Revised noise limits for Diesel Generator sets (upto 1000 KVA) were notified, vide GSR 371(E), May 17, 2002. This regulation requires mandatory provision of acoustic enclosure at the manufacturing stage for all new diesel generator sets effective from July 1, 2003. The maximum permissible sound pressure level for new generator sets (upto 1000 KVA) run on diesel, according to this new regulation shall be 75 dB(A) at one metre from the enclosure surface.

For existing diesel generator sets, the noise from the DG set shall be controlled by providing an acoustic enclosure or acoustic treatment of the room for DG sets. Such acoustic enclosures/acoustically treated rooms, shall be so designed for minimum 25 dB(A) insertion loss or for meeting the ambient noise standards, whichever is on higher side.

Compliance Procedure for Noise Limits for Generator Sets

Petrol/Kerosene Generator Sets

Compliance procedure for noise limits for generator sets run on petrol/kerosene has been finalised. The implementation of the standards has commenced with effect from September 1, 2002.

Diesel Generator Sets (upto 1000 KVA)

Compliance procedure for noise limits for generator sets run on diesel has been finalised and will be circulated to the concerned testing agencies.

New Diesel Generator Sets (upto 800 KW)

Compliance procedure for emission limits for new diesel engines (upto 800 KW) for genset applications is being developed.

Generator Set Emissions

Emission limits for new diesel engines (upto 800 KW) for generator sets applications were notified. This regulation specifies the emission limits for different ratings.

Emission standards for diesel engines rating more than 800 KW for power plant, generator set applications and other requirements were notified.

10.9 DEVELOPMENT OF EMISSION STANDARDS AND STACK HEIGHT REGULATIONS FOR THE VERTICAL SHAFT BRICK KILN VIS-A VIS POLLUTION CONTROL MEASURES

Vertical Shaft Brick Kiln (VSBK) is a vertical type kiln as against the traditional Bull Trench Brick Kiln (BTKs), which has horizontal kiln. The kiln is a natural draft system and uses no electricity for operation. Dry green bricks are loaded manually at the top of the kiln and `measured quantity’ of crushed coal of specified size (5-20 mm) is sprinkled over the brick layers, Loading is done in batches after unloading, and each batch consists of 4 layers of bricks. The entire brick batches are supported by bars support provided at the bottom. Normal cycle for brick production varies between 26-30 hrs. During unloading, the entire brick load is transferred to a screw jack system over which a trolley is rested one batch of brick is brought down to facilitate unloading. The support bars are put back to transfer the load back to them and the trolley is brought down. The production capacity of Vertical shaft brick kiln depends on shaft size and number of shafts. About 20 VSBKs are in operation in different regions of the country.

The Ministry of Environment and Forests based on recommendations of the Central Pollution Control Board has introduced emission standards for bull trench kiln during 1996. The standards also envisaged phasing out of moving chimney from BTKs. The Central Board took up the work of evolving emission standards stack height regulations vis-a-vis pollution control measures with active support of TERI, New Delhi.

The performance of VSBKs was monitored during the year 2002. The SPM concentration in the stack was measured between 77-372 mg/Nm3. Some of the advantages of the VSBK technology include 1) lower energy consumption (30-60% energy saving); 2) low SPM emissions; 3) less floor area requirement for construction of kilns; 4) flexibility in operation; 5) uniform quality of fired bricks; and 6) ability to operate throughout the year, as against BTKs. Keeping these factors in view, VSBK may offer as an alternate viable technology for moving chimney BTKs low capacity and also for clamps.

The energy performance of the VSBKs shows the average specific energy consumption of VSBKs is 0.9 MJ/kg fired bricks lower than the traditional firing technologies used in the country. The VSBK technology has lower emission levels, thus having good potential in the market.

10.10 DEVELOPMENT OF COMPREHENSIVE INDUSTRY DOCUMENT

Development of Comprehensive Industry Document and Environment Standards for Refractory Industry

Refractories are materials, which can withstand high temperature. Their essential function is to serve as structural materials in kilns and thus, their usefulness depends on their ability to maintain mechanical properties at high temperature. In fact refractories are indispensable at almost all ferrous and non-ferrous industries, where high temperature furnaces or kilns are being used. The steel and metallurgical industries greatly depend on refractories involving high temperature application. Refractories are basically heat and corrosion resistant materials used in furnaces. The refractories find application in steel industry, cement, aluminum and glass industry. The steel industry accounts for nearly 75 percent of the consumption of refractories, whereas cement industry accounts around 11 percent. The aluminium and glass industry consumes around six and four percent of refractory products respectively. All other industries consume only four percent of refractory products. Today the refractory production capacity in India is sufficient to cater the national requirement quantitatively but for the quality imports are necessary, especially for steel industry. In India small refractory plants are mostly in unorganised sector, whereas, there are few large and medium capacity refractory plants producing various types of export quality refractory products.

Broadly, the refractory can be categorized based on the installed capacity. On the basis of plant capacity (Thousand Tonnes per Annum, TPA), the refractory plants are categorized as very small scale (up to 5000 TPA), small scale (5001-15000 TPA), medium (15001-50000 TPA) and large capacity (above 50000 TPA) refractory plant.

There are about 6 large, 17 medium scale and 63 refractory plants in the category of small or very small scale sector in the country. Because of sluggish demand from end-user industry and competition from quality imports, some of the refractory manufacturers are facing tough situation while few are on the verge of closure or have been closed. The use of high quality refractories has improved the lining life of furnaces and brought down the specific consumption per tonne of liquid steel, resulting in a lower per tonne usage of refractories, which has adverse impact on traditional refractory manufacturing.

The primary pollutant of concern in refractory plant is particulate matter or dust in air emission apart from water pollution, solid wastes and noise pollution. Particulate matter in terms of fugitive dust generation takes place during crushing, grinding and screening operation in plant. During the study, the present status of pollution in refractory industry and their control, different technologies adopted by Indian refractory industry to combat pollution and finally to develop norms for pollution control. The study has been undertaken in collaboration with National Council for Cement & Building Materials. Ambient air quality, fugitive dust, stack emission, trade effluent, noise pollution & solid waste were monitored during the course of study.

Development of Comprehensive Industry Document and Emission Standards for Hot Mix Plants

Construction of roads play a vital role in Socio-economic development of the country. Ever since the Government of India declared infrastructure developmentas the thrust area, there has been predominant boom in the road construction sector. The construction and maintenance of major portion of the road network is undertaken using conventional hot bitumen-mixes. The hot bitumen mixes are prepared in hot mix plants, which emits significant emission containing particulate matter, sulphur dioxide besides carcinogenic poly-aromatic hydrocarbons. There are more than 1000 hot mix plants of different categories operating in different parts of the country. As per the survey undertaken by Central Building Research Institute (CBRI), Roorkee, plants are of stationary, drum- continuous type. The rated production capacity varies from 6-10 tphr to 10-120 tphr. The locations of these plants keep on changing. Burning of fuel, feeding of aggregates, heating of bitumen from large number of plants are bound to create environmental hazard because of emission of dust and volatile organic compounds like BTX, PAH and PCB’s.

Central Pollution Control Board has initiated preparation of Comprehensive Industry Document (COINDS) on Hot Mix Plants in an effort to minimize the adverse environmental impacts by regulating emissions. Information on plant, process details, pollution control technology, emissions, plant location, etc. was collected through extensive field visits as well as questionnaire surveys. The COINDS includes development of environmental standards, suitable techno-economic pollution control device and guidelines for its operation and maintenance.

Development of Environmental Standards for Wheat Processing, Flour Mills, Pulse Grinding and Milling, Dry Rice Grinding and Rice Mills

There are a large number of units spread across the country engaged in pulse milling, dry rice and besan grinding, wheat processing and flour making mills and rice mills. These units mostly use conventional production technologies, which are not oriented towards minimising pollution by incorporation of in-plant control measures. These units give rise to substantial pollution of air, water, noise etc. The Central Pollution Control Board desires to evolve environmental standards for these mills with the help of the National Productivity Council, New Delhi.

The objective of the project is to study the problem of noise, emission and effluent disposal, best available technology not involving excessive cost to prevent, abate and control water, air and noise pollution and to develop standards for noise, emission and effluent including storm water disposal for wheat flour mills, pulses making mills, dry rice, pulses grinding mills and emission standards for rice mills. The scope of work for this project is:

About 20 plants (e.g., five in each category - wheat flour, wheat process, rice mill, rice & pulse grinding, pulse making units) have to be studied in depth by conducting monitoring for the following:

Technologies are being reviewed for abatement, prevention and control of water pollution, abatement, prevention and control of air pollution, handling of storm water within plant area, control of noise pollution at source, and assessment of adaptability of technologies in Indian context.

Development of COINDS for Tea Processing Industries

India is one of the major exporters of black tea. Tea is grown in certain districts of Assam, West Bengal, Kerala, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu and to some extent in Tripura, Uttaranchal and Himachal Pradesh. In India, average yield of tea was approximately 1670 kg/hectare for the year 2000 and total area under tea cultivation is about 5,00,000 hectares.

Tea is grown in varied type of soil found in tropical, subtropical and temperate climatic conditions. Tea grows best in acidic soils, in areas having a precipitation of about 1,150 to 8,000 mm.

Tea processing consists of the following production units:

For Black Tea Processing, unit operations include:

Air Pollution Control

Source of air emission in the tea industry is basically the D.G. set which is operated only during the power shut-down period. The following efforts are needed from the management towards controlling the air emission.

Wastewater Management

Source of wastewater in the tea industry is the domestic sector since the industrial process is basically dry in nature. It is recommended that the domestic waste thus generated be treated in simple treatment system prior to its final disposal. Infact, the wastewater so generated may be treated in Septic Tank. Partially treated effluent from the septic tank should either be disposed of in soak pits or to be further treated in up-flow anaerobic filter (UFAF). The treated effluent from the UFAF could be discharged into any inland surface water or can be used for gardening purpose. Apart from such treatment the management should also practice the following :

Solid Waste Management

The tea plants provide some green manure from leaf-fall; where shade trees are planted their leaves also form green manure. The waste from factories amounting to about 2% of total production may either be recycled in the process, returned to the field as fertilizer or may be reprocessed for by-product recovery. Tea industry produces solid waste, which amounts to about 2.0% of the black tea production. 0.3% of this waste is recycled using some special technique. The balance 1.7% of the solid waste does not have any use value to the black tea producers and is normally sold to a selected reprocessing units where some chemical by products are recovered from this waste.

- The fertilizers, which are normally used during tea cultivation, have minimum if not nil effect on the environment.

- Limited chemical study of the leaves, soil & the water used in the system have indicted that the tea leaves, soil & water are all by and large free of pesticide residues.

- Tea processing which is the factory operation is more or less a dry process and as such does not generate any liquid effluent.

- Odour generated during tea processing within the factory premises is of tea only.

10.11 POTENTIAL APPLICATION OF TEAM PROCESS FOR BIOMETHANATION OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF AGRO-SOLID WASTES

Handling and disposal of solid wastes is a major problem because of the harmful environmental effects due to its unscientific handling. There is no proper treatment and disposal mechanism for solid waste and as such it is indiscriminately dumped in low-lying areas. This results in ground water pollution due to the seepage and also release of greenhouse gases such as methane and carbon-dioxide into the atmosphere. The solid wastes from agro-based industries have a high organic content and hence its treatment by the process of bio-methanation is most viable and results in the generation of useful products like biogas and enriched manure. Inspite of the high potential due to the large quantity of generation, we still do not have a well-proven and working design with low retention time and minimal operational problems for the digestion of solid wastes. Keeping these considerations it was decided to test the application of TEAM process for finding bio-methanation potential of organic wastes. The TEAM process is a two stage process consisting of acidification and methanation processes.

Acidification Phase:

In acidification phase, the organic content of the solid waste is leached out to make a high strength liquid, by decomposition of the waste with water. The complete set up of the treatment system consists of rectangular digesters and a reservoir. The acidification reactors are made of mild steel with epoxy coating. The capacity of the digesters is 200 litres. A nylon bag with a mesh size of 0.5 mm was packed with waste and loaded into the digester from the top. Required amount of water was filled, which is sprinkled thrice a day for 15 minutes over the waste bed in the digester by means of a perforated sprinkler situated in the lid of digester. This mixes the liquid well during digestion. Leachate is re-circulated using a small pump. Process continues till there is complete extraction of the organic matter from the waste in the leachate. The digester has a valve at the bottom through which water was re-circulated over the bed of waste at intermittent intervals. Sample was also collected through this port for regular monitoring of various parameters for estimation of extraction efficiency. Depending on the performance of the digester, the extracted liquid leaches out most of the organic matter from the waste. An arrangement for the periodic removal of digested solid waste is provided at the top in the form of a pulley which lifts the bag full of digested sludge and places it on drying floor.

Methanation Phase:

The leachate collected from the acidification reactor is treated in a UASB (Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket) reactor. The gas constitutes of 70-75% methane, 20-25% carbon dioxide. Treated leachate can be recycled back to the acidification reactor for sprinkling. Hence the use of water for acidification process is minimized, unlike in conventional biogas plants.

The leachate treatment for generation of biogas was achieved in a 100 litre UASB reactor made of stainless steel. The height and diameter of the reactor were 1.6 m and 30 cm respectively. The leachate from the acidification reactor was fed into the UASB reactor by means of a peristaltic pump (Miclins India, PP-30 series). The gas flow was monitored by connecting the outlet tube from the UASB reactor to a gas flow meter (Insref-IR 08B). The performance of the reactor was studied at a controlled temperature of 370C. The temperature was maintained by placing the reactor in an insulated chamber equipped with a heat convector that was controlled by a temperature sensor.

The innoculum for the UASB reactor was procured in the form of raw sludge from a local sewage treatment plant. The sludge was acclimatized in a batch reactor to the leachate. A sludge to media volume ratio of 1:2 was maintained during the acclimatization period. The adapted sludge was used in the UASB reactor to treat the organic extract.

The leachate extracted from the food waste was tested in the UASB reactor. For the organic extract from other substrates, in order to assess the biogas generation potential, experiments were conducted in 10 litre bottles with a HRT of 40 days with methanogenic consortia.

Solid Wastes Tested for Bio-methanation Potential:

For the application of TEAM process, following solid wastes which are generated in different agro-based industries were collected and tested using TEAM process:

Characterisation of the Solid Waste: The characteristics of solid waste is presented in Table 10.1.

Table 10.1 Characteristics of Solid Waste

Parameter (%)

Total Solids

Volatile solids

Moisture content

Carbon

Cellulose

Pineapple waste

12.24

95.31

87.76

43.8

47.2

Apple peels

15.51

96.9

84.5

41

44

Press mud

23.85

77.31

76.15

37.05

29

Pea shells

11.11

91.22

88.89

36.69

31.4

Mixed fruit and vegetable peels

10.2

87.95

89.8

34.04

17.4

Coffee pulp

67.9

87.5

32.1

37.61

39.6

Food waste

26.6

96.63

73.4

44.14

14

Tapioca

86.6

97.35

13.4

37.59

--

Product potential from different agriculture residual waste: The manure value and biogas potential of different agricultural residual waste is presented in Table 10.2.

Table 10.2 Product Potential of different Agricultural Wastes

Type of waste

Biogas (m3/t)

Manure Value

N

P

K

Fruit and vegetable processing

20

1.2

0.1

0.6

Press mud

9

0.6

0.6

0.4

Food wastes

54

0.5

0.1

0.3

Coffee pulp

10

1.8

0.1

3

 

Economic benefits from TEAM process

There is dual benefit associated with the waste biomethanation as we get clean fuel (biogas) and enriched manure (Table 10.3). In case of composting of organic wastes manure is the end product.

Table 10.3 Economic viability of TEAM Process
 

Biomethanation

Composting

Plant Capacity

1 TPD

1 TPD

Capital Cost

5 lakhs

1 lakh

Annual Biogas generation @ 54 m3/d

19710 m3

--

Amount of LPG replaced

8721 kg

--

Savings from LPG @ Rs.30/Kg

Rs.261637

--

Manure generation

36500 kg

36500 kg

Revenue generation from sale of manure @ Rs. 2/Kg.

Rs.73,000

Rs.73,000

Total Revenue generation

Rs.3.34 lakhs

Rs.73,000

Payback period on plant cost

1.49 years

1.36 years


The payback period of the plant based on both technologies is almost same, indicating higher returns from biomethanation in long run. Further, in case of composting, there are certain limitations such as high land requirements, odor problem, non-suitability of the process during monsoon.

10.12 PERFORMANCE EVALUATION STUDY OF ROOT ZONE TREATMENT PLANT AT MOTHER DAIRY

The Root Zone Treatment process effectively purify domestic and industrial effluents according to the law of nature. The term "root zone" encompasses the interactions of various species of bacteria, the roots of the reed plants, soil, air, sun and water. The reed plants (eg. Phragmites communis) carry oxygen through stems into their root systems and thus optimal conditions for the growth of bacteria are created. These bacteria oxidize impurities in the wastewater. Since the process occurs under-ground, the mosaic of aerobic and anaerobic zones exists side-by-side, inducing different types of chemical reactions and balancing bacterial growth. It is estimated that about 5000 types of aerobic and facultative bacteria are present in the root zone filter as compared to only 300 types in conventional biological systems. The whole process of root zone system functions as a mirror of the purifying, self-regulating and simplifying processes found in nature.

Central Pollution Control Board has demonstrated the Root Zone Treatment Plant at Mother Dairy. The scientific study of soil, hydraulics and environmental parameters was carried out for the better understanding of the process in Indian climatic condition, which is essential for development and popularization of this innovative technique.

The samples of influent, interim and out flow were analyzed by CPCB for pH, BOD, COD, TDS, PO4-P, and TKN. The result were very encouraging for all parameters except TDS, (Efficiency as high as 99%). It was also found that Root zone treatment plant very effectively removes Total and Feceal Colifoms. (The removal efficiency is as high as 99.99%).

It was also concluded by experiments that vertical beds can treat effectively as high as the BOD in the range of 100 to 125 gm/m2/day whereas the horizontal beds, the range is between 35 to 50 gm/m2/day, which is greater than the limits being recommended currently.

10.13 PROSPECTS AND STATUS OF NATURAL DYES

To assess the prospects and status of natural dyes, the study has been initiated pertaining to availability of raw materials, process technologies, current demand, usage and problems in development/manufacture of natural dyes.

10.14 COLOUR REMOVAL USING ELECTROFLOCCULATION PROCESS FROM BLACK LIQUOR OF AGRO-BASED PULP & PAPER MILLS

Colour in the effluent from agro-based pulp & paper mills is caused by discharge of black liquor containing lignin. A study has been undertaken on removal of colour from the black liquor by removing lignin using electro-flocculation process. The study has been undertaken on black liquor generated in the laboratory as well as on black liquor collected from the mills manufacturing unbleached as well as bleached grade of paper.

The results of analysis shows that iron electrode has been found effective in removal of colour, lignin and COD. Removal to the extent of 98%(lignin) and 86%(colour) achieved at a pH of 6.0 and temperature of 400C. The optimum time requirement was 40 min for complete electro-flocculation process. The process was carried out at different total solid concentration ranging between 0.5% to 2% and optimum results were at 1.5% concentration.

The trial was also done with the black liquor sample collected from paper mill manufacturing bleached and unbleached grade of paper. The black liquor was subjected to electro-flocculation using different volumes i.e. 2 lit, 5 lit & 7 lit under optimum conditions. A sample of analysis results achieved with 7 m3 black liquor volume are presented in Table 10.4.

 

Table 10.4 Analysis Results of Black Liquor

Sl. No.

Parameters

Bleached grade

Unbleached grade

Before treatment

After treatment

Before treatment

After treatment

1.

pH

7.9

8.7

6.4

9.0

2.

Total Solids, gm/l

13.0

8.0

9.0

6.

3.

BOD, mg/l

4622

3583

2460

2120

4.

COD, mg/l

9801

6021

8250

2300

5.

Colour, Pt-Co Unit

6333

1.6

13163

2.2

6.

Lignin, gm/l

3.87

0.74

2.83

0.43

7.

Silica, gm/l

0.415

0.1

0.21

0.046

8.

Power Consumption, KWH

0.00

0.104

0.00

0.132


Power Consumption

It was observed that the power consumption is on the lower side if the electro-flocculation is done in two steps by splitting total power consume. In this regard, the studies were conducted in three different volumes of black liquor i.e. 2 lit, 9 lit and 45 lit. The power consumption was 14.5 KWH/m3, 10.6 KWH/m3 and 7.7 KWH/m3.

Findings

10.15 POLLUTION CONTROL MEASURES IN PLASTICIZER INDUSTRIES

As per the list of industries compiled by MPCB, GPCB & DPCC, most of the Plasticizer industries (Total 21 - mostly small scale units) are located in west zone of the country) have been visited and monitored in respect of water and air emissions.

The plasticizer industry, producing different types of Plasticizers (which allows the flexibility to plastics), has high potential for water and air pollution. The plasticizer industry generates low volumes of effluents with high organic load. This industry has more of fugitive emission problems (particularly, organic fumes) rather than the source emissions. The units falling under this category have provided varied degree of effluent treatment facilities; however, most units have zero-discharge condition, which makes it vulnerable for the effluent treatment, reuse, and disposal. The detailed report is under preparation.  

10.16 POLLUTION CONTROL IN SLAUGHTER HOUSE

The slaughter houses are mainly water polluting units. They also cause air pollution by way of foul smell and generate substantial quantity of solid wastes. It is therefore, necessary that these units should install proper treatment systems.

The Central Pollution Control Board is pursuing State Pollution Control Boards and Pollution Control Committees to take action against slaughter houses and related units. In order to speed up pollution control implementation, directions have been issued to the State Boards under Section 18(1)(b) of the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 for taking action in case of slaughter houses and related industries. The State Boards have been directed to issue the following directions to slaughter houses/meat processing industries, which don't have requisite effluent treatment plants:

10.17 DEVELOPMENT OF GUIDELINES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL CLEARANCE TO PROPOSED DISTILLERIES:

The Special Secretary, MoEF constituted a group of experts and officers of CPCB & MoEF to recommend criteria/technology for environmental clearance to the proposed distilleries. Experts and officers of CPCB & MoEF had discussions on various issues and recommended following:

The Committee has classified distilleries in two groups based on their capacity of alcohol production :

Class I Distilleries having capacity of less than 45 kld

Class II Distilleries having capacity more than 45 kld.

For class I distilleries, i.e. distillery having capacity less than 45 kld, following alternative technologies are recommended to be adopted for treatment and disposal of spent wash for allowing new distilleries :

  1. Bio-methanation followed by composting;
  1. Composting of spentwash directly;
  1. Evaporation and drying/incineration of spent wash; and

iv. Bio-methanation followed by evaporation and drying/incineration

For Class-II distilleries; i.e. distilleries having capacity more than 45 kld, the recommendations are as follows:

The proposed distilleries having capacity more than 45 kld be allowed to operate with evaporation and drying/incineration technology for the treatment and disposal of spent wash. This may be alongwith or without bio-methanation process. Alternatively, the industry may also opt for evaporation and composting of the concentrated spent wash.

Quantity of Spent wash from Distillery Plant

The generation of spent wash should be limited to 8-10 kl/kl of Rectified Spirit(RS). This may be achieved either by adoption of continuous fermentation technology or by providing reboiler. In the case of incineration preceded by bio-methanation system, spentwash generation upto 15 kl per kl of RS production may be allowed.

In case, the distillery is situated near the coastal area, its disposal with proper treatment will have to be analysed in detail considering marine biological aspect of the area as well as other considerations, i.e. dilution effect of the sea water etc.

Development of requirement for Compost plant in Distilleries

The three Member Committee constituted by the Hon'ble Supreme Court in the matter of Distilleries in Haryana State had taken assistance of technical experts, consultants, officers form CPCB & HSPCB to decide the requirements/specification for surface compost process utilizing distillery spent wash and press mud. The requirements/specification for surface compost process by utilizing spent wash and press mud evolved are presented in Table 10.5.

Table 10.5 Requirement for Surface Compost Process

S. No.

Description

Requirements

1.

Working days of distillery

Maximum 270 days(rainy season shall be avoided and the entire compost area shall be kept dry before starting of the rainy season)

2.

Spent wash Storage capacity (duly lined with 250 micron HDPE sheet and pitched by stone/bricks with cement mortar to prevent leachate)

<30 days

3.

Press mud (PM)to Spent wash (SW) ratio

1: 2.5 to 1:3.5

4.

Land required for Compost plant

Specification of floor of compost yard should be as under (with arrangement of leachate collection and surface runoff and its pumping to holding lagoon and laying of pipe net work for automatic spraying of spent wash)

  1. Compaction of soil;
  2. 5 cm local sand cushion (bottom);
  3. 250 micron HDPE sheet(as per BIS specification);
  4. 5 cm sand cushion (top); and
  5. Brick/stone soling(not less than 6 cm in case of bricks & 3 cm in case of stone soling)

* In case the coefficient of permeability is less than 10-8 cm/sec (as in black cotton soil), 30 cm depth of impervious soil, compacted with 30 cm depth of murum at the top may also be used

850 MT/acres/cycle

5.

No. of days required to complete one cycle

  1. 45 days for 1 : 2.5
  2. ( PM to SW ratio)

  3. 60 days for 1 : 3.5

(PM to SW ratio)

6.

Maximum allowable cycles/ annum

i. 5 cycles incase 45 days compost period

ii. 4 cycles in incase 60 days compost

7.

Land required for Storage of press mud

  • In case, storage area is not leak proof (by lining with HDPE or less permeable compacted soil as specified in para 4), press mud should be transferred to compost yard before onset of rainy period and covered with HDPE/PVC sheet/tarpaulin

Equivalent to one cycle

8.

Land required for storage of finished product

  • Land area will be raised by about 30 cm above ground level. The maximum height of storage shall be 4m. The finished compost shall be kept under sheds or covered with PVC/HDPE sheet/Tapaulin to prevent soaking from rain water.

Equivalent to 33% of the total production of finished product/annum

9.

Compost quantity

3.0-3.5 MT/kld of alcohol production

10.

Compost quality

Moisture content : < 35%

Organic carbon : 20-25%

Phosphorous : 1.5-2.0%

Nitrogen : 1.5-2.0%

Potassium : 2.0-3.5%

C:N ratio : <17

Equipment's and Machinery Required

1.

Tractor for transportation of press mud from storage site to composting area

One

2.

Homogenizing Machine along with auto spraying system with 70 HP tractor

(for churning upto the bottom)

One

3.

Front end loader with tractor or JCB of bucket capacity of 600-1000 kg

One

4.

Sieving machine

One

5.

Sewing machine, incase compost is to be bagged (finishing product )

One

Development of requirements for Treatment & Disposal of Distillery effluent

The three member Committee Constituted by the Hon'ble Supreme Court in the matter of Distilleries of Haryana State had taken assistance of technical experts and officers of CPCB to decide requirements for treatment & disposal of distillery effluents. The requirements for treatment & disposal of distillery effluent are as below:

Distilleries discharging into surface waters/Drains

- Dilution of spent wash before bio-methanation should be restricted as per reactor design requirement. As far as possible it should not exceed 30 % of the spent wash volume.

- The storage capacity of the lagoon , based on the final diluted effluent flow, should not be less than 2 days.

Distilleries discharging on land for irrigation

- Available land area for application of the treated and diluted effluent should be 4.5 ha/kld of alcohol production, during the first year of operation of the distillery. The following year, an additional 4.5 ha/kld of alcohol production should be available. Thus, a total of 9 ha/kld of alcohol production is required.

Wastewater Treatment - Unitwise Requirements

The following criteria are used to evaluate the adequacy of the treatment units. The minimum treatment scheme should comprise primary anaerobic bio-methanation reactor, followed by two stage activated sludge process with an intermediate and a final clarifier, each having an adequate sludge re-circulation system. .

10.18 DETERMINATION OF OPTIMUM WATER CONSUMPTION LIMIT FOR BULK DRUG MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

Bulk-drug industries consume considerable quantities of water for their process and non-process uses. As a rapid growing industry, the product profile is changing and the quantity of water usage is also having wide ranges. Therefore, a study has been taken-up by the Central Board to review the existing patterns of the water use. Options for optimisation and to arrive at optimum water consumption limit for the bulk drug industry, so that the industries which consume water less than the limit and having adequate ETP facilities can avail the water cess rebate offered under the provisions of The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Cess Act, 1977.

Looking at the wide variation in the water consumption patterns, the industries have been classified into four groups for evaluation as presented in Table 10.6.

Table 10.6 Classification of Bulk Drug Industries for Evaluation

Group I

High production volume – High number of manufactures

Analgesics and Anti-pyretics

Anti Asthmatics

Anti Dysentry

Sulpha Drugs

Vitamins

Anti Bacterial

Synthetic Anti Biotics

Anti TB


Group II

High production volume – Low number of manufacturers

Fermented Anti Biotics


Group III

Low production volume – High number of manufacturers

Anaesthetics

Anti Histamines

Anti Malarial

Gastro-intestinal

Anti Diabetics

Anti Helmentics


Group IV

Low production volume – Low number of manufacturers

Corticosteroids

CNS Stimulants

Diuretics

Tranquillisers and Sedatives

Cardiovascular

Anti Leprotics

Anti Filarials

 

From the questionnaires received from the bulk drug industries, it is observed that most of the water is consumed in the utilities and domestic areas as compared to the manufacturing process areas. The ratio of process water consumption to total water consumption is 20 – 25% in most of the industries and huge amount of water used in utilities are not being re-used/re-cycled. Options for water conservation are being identified to optimise the water use and to suggest the optimum water consumption limit(s).

10.19 POLLUTION CONTROL IN INDUSTRIES

Colour Removal from Black Liquor of Agro-Based Pulp & Paper Mills

Colour in the effluent from agro-based pulp & paper mills is caused by discharge of black liquor containing lignin. A study has been undertaken on removal of colour from the black liquor by removing lignin using electro-flocculation process. The study in the laboratory has been undertaken on black liquor generated as well as on black liquor collected from the mills manufacturing unbleached as well as bleached grade of paper.

The results of analysis shows that iron electrode has been found effective in removal of colour, lignin and COD. Removal to the extent of 98% (lignin) and 86% (colour) achieved at a 6.0 pH and temperature of 400C. The optimum time requirement was 40 min for complete electro-flocculation process. The process was carried out at different total solid concentration ranging between 0.5% to 2% and optimum results were at 1.5% concentration.

The trial was also done with the black liquor sample collected from paper mill manufacturing bleached and unbleached grade of paper. The black liquor was subjected to electro-flocculation using different volumes i.e. 2 l, 5 l and 7 l under optimum conditions.

Pollution Control in Ginning Industries

Cotton ginning is an interface between farming and industrial sectors from cotton to textile production, and engaged in the process of separation of cotton fibres from Cotton balls. Ginning industries are mostly small units located in semi-rural and small towns. During the ginning process, dust fibres and lint are generated which cause air pollution. Studies were carried out in ginning industries to identify pollution problems and suggest remedial measures.

Prospects and Status of Natural Dyes

To assess the prospects and status of natural dyes, the study has been initiated which includes availability of raw materials, process technologies, current demand, usage and problems in development/manufacture of natural dyes.

Review of Standards for Oil Refineries

The standards for discharge of effluent and emissions from oil refineries were notified in the years 1986 and 1990 respectively. There is need to include additional parameters such as oxides of nitrogen, volatile organic compounds etc. Since developments has taken place in the refining technology and pollution control. New process units are also being added to meet the improved fuel quality standards.

The project has been taken up for the revision of the standards for oil refineries based on performance as well as technology based approach and include mass based and concentration-based standards for various process operations of refineries. A leak detection and repair (LDAR) programme and specific requirements for minimizing vapour losses from storage tanks and product loading/unloading facilities are being considered to regulate the fugitive emissions of volatile organic compounds.

Control of acid mist from Sulphuric Acid Plants

Sulphuric Acid plants emit oxides of sulphur and acid mist in the atmosphere. Presently emission limits are prescribed as 4.0 kg/tonne of concentrated acid produced for SOx and 50 mg/nm3 for acid mist. A study was undertaken to study the possibilities of technology upgradation in existing sulphuric acid plants and use of state-of-the-art technology in new plants to further reduce and control oxides of sulphur and acid mists.

10.20 ENVIRONMENT SURVEILLANCE ACTIVITIES

Environment surveillance activities were taken on priority to, (i) keep a watch on the polluting industries to ensure regular operation of their pollution control facilities, and (ii) conduct in-depth monitoring studies to see the improvements in the environmental quality as a result of the implementation of the various Central Action Programmes.

Inspections of industries and areas were conducted and actions taken on the basis of the findings. The actions taken include (i) issuance of directions under Section 18 (1) (b) of the Water Act, 1974 and/or Air Act, 1981 to the SPCBs/PCCs requiring them to ensure implementation of the findings in respect of the concerned industries/areas, and (ii) direct action under Section 5 of the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 against the industries from CPCB itself.

A total of 125 directions were issued to SPCBs/PCCs under Section 18 (1) (b) of the Water Act, 1974 and/or Air Act, 1981 in the financial year 2002-2003, making the total of such directions issued till March 31, 2003 to 861.

A total of 75 directions were issued to the industries under Section 5 of the E (P) Act, 1986 in the financial year 2001-2002, making the total of such directions issued till March 31, 2003, to 507.

Inspection of Industries by CPCB

A comprehensive programme was initiated for surprise inspection of 150 industries by CPCB. A total of 144 inspections were carried out by CPCB and actions were taken on the basis of the findings of the inspections.

Direct action against eight industries was taken on the basis of the findings of the surprise inspection carried out by CPCB. A total of 10 directions/notices including one confirmed closure have been issued under Section 5 of the E (P) Act, 1986.

Eight directions under section 18 (1) (b) of the Water and Air Act have been issued to the SPCBs/PCCs requiring them to ensure pollution control in polluting industries/areas. The directions were issued for pollution control by industries in Manali, Chembur, Pondicherry, Bhopal, Vadodara and UT-Dadra and Nagar Haveli areas.

Inspection of Industries by SPCBs/PCCs

Directions under Section 18 (1) (b) of the Water and Air Act were issued to all SPCBs/PCCs in July 2002, for conducting regular inspection of polluting industries and submission of monthly reports including details of inspections and action taken against the defaulters. More than 2750 industries have been inspected by the SPCBs/PCCs.

10.21 MONITORING OF COMPLIANCE IN 17 CATEGORIES OF HIGHLY POLLUTING INDUSTRIES

Action against the defaulters

The implementation of the action plan for pollution control in 1551 medium and large scale units (which came into operation on or before December 31, 1991) identified under the 17 highly polluting industrial sectors was continued. The follow-up of the action taken against the defaulting industries under Section 5 of the E (P) Act, 1986 was further intensified and the number of defaulting industries has reduced to 22 in March 2003. These defaulters, mainly Thermal Power Plants, are either in the process of comssissiong of the ESPs or retrofitting/upgradation of their existing ESPs, which require longer time for completion of the jobs.

1350 industries have provided the requisite pollution control facilities and the remaining 179 are closed. The state-wise and category-wise status of 1551 industries as on March 31, 2003 is given in Appendix-VIII and Appendix-IX respectively. The year wise reduction in the number of defaulters is shown in Fig 10.1.

Improvement after delegation of powers to CPCB under Section 5 of the E (P) ACT, 1986 in February 1996

The status as on March 2003 vis-à-vis March 1996, of these 1551 large and medium industries falling under 17 categories of highly polluting industries, which came into operation before December 31, 1991 is as follows:

  March 1996 March 2003

Total no. of units

1551 1551
No. of units which have provided the
requisite pollution control facilities
1220 1350

No. of units closed
111 179

No. of units defaulting

220 22

Inventorisation of Post-91 Industries

The inventorisation of the large and medium industries of 17 categories, which came into operation on or after January 01, 1992, completed. The information received from SPCBs/PCCs have been collated and compiled, and was sent to SPCBs/PCCs for confirmation of the lists and obtaining the latest status of the action taken against the defaulters. A total of 604 industries have been identified, out of which 527 have provided the requisite pollution control facilities, 46 are closed and 31 are still defaulting.

Ensuring Self Monitoring of the Emission/Discharge in 17 Categories of Industries

Directions under section 18 (1) (b) of the Water and Air Act issued in July 2002 to all SPCBs/PCCs for providing operational status of pollution control facilities provided by the 17 categories of industries and action taken against the defaulters. The reports were required to be submitted on a six monthly basis with the first report to be submitted by January 10, 2003. Reports have been received from Chhatishgarh and Goa, and reminder has been sent to remaining SPCBs/PCCs for obtaining the reports.

10.22 POLLUTION CONTROL IN PROBLEM AREAS

Preparation of the Action Plans

Twenty-four problem areas have been identified in the country for pollution control through concerted efforts involving all the concerned agencies/industries. Action plans have been prepared and being implemented in respect of all these 24 areas. A summary of the status of the progress made in preparation and implementation of action plan in these areas is provided in Appendix-X.

Environmental Monitoring in the Problem Areas of Najafgarh Drain Basin, Kala-Amb, Parwanoo, Jodhpur, North Arcot, and Govindgarh

Environmental Monitoring in the Problem Areas of Nagda-Ratlam, Korba, Jodhpur, Najafgarh Drain Basin, Kala-Amb, Parwanoo, North Arcot, and Govindgarh were conducted under the Water Cess Utilisation scheme. Monitoring is completed and draft interim reports received in respect of all the five problem areas of Parwanoo, Kala-Amb, Govindgarh, Najafgarh Drain Basin and North Arcot and the same are being evaluated.

Monitoring and Survey in Problem Areas

Intensive monitoring survey programme has been initiated in 15 problem areas namely, Ankleshwar, Chembur, Dhanbad, Durgapur, Greater Cochin, Singrauli, Howrah, Jodhpur, Korba, Manali, Nagda-Ratlam, Pattencherru-Bollaram, Tarapur and Vapi. Jodhpur, Pali, Nagda-Ratlam and Korba have been visited and the monitoring reports are under preparation.

Colour was observed in the Ground Water in the Ratlam area during the monitoring. The source of colour in the ground water was found to be the improper management and handling of the Solid/Hazardous waste generated by a Dyes Intermediate industry namely M/s. Bordia Chemicals Ltd., Ratlam. Confirmed closure directions (without any notice) were issued to M/s. Bordia Chemicals under Section 5 of the E (P) Act, 1986, in view of the environmental damage already done by the industry.

Show Cause Notices for closure under Section 5 of the E (P) Act, 1986 were also issued to M/s. Kataria Wires Pvt. Ltd., and ACME Ferro Alloys, Ratlam for not providing the adequate pollution control facilities.

Pollution Control in Problem Area of Chembur and adjoining areas

Directions under section 18 (1) (b) of the Water/Air Act issued to the Maharashtra SPCB in the matter of industrial pollution control in the Chembur and adjoining areas, in connection with the observations/recommendations of the Lok Sabha’s Committee of Petitions.

Pollution Control in Problem Area of Manali

Directions under section 18 (1) (b) of the Water/Air Act issued to the Tamil Nadu SPCB on the basis of the observations made during the visit by CPCB and MoEF team, for pollution control in Manali industrial area.

10.23 INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION CONTROL ALONG THE RIVERS AND LAKES

Industrial Pollution Control along the river Ganga (GAP Phase-I)

The follow-up programmes in respect of 68 industries identified under Ganga Action Plan (GAP) Phase-I were initiated by CPCB soon after the introduction of GAP in 1985. The pollution control status of these 68 industries as on March 31, 2003 is provided in Appendix-XI.

The industrial pollution control programme along the river Ganga got further intensified with the launching of the Central Action Plan in August, 1997, for control of industrial discharges along the rivers and lakes in the country. This programme resulted into identification of 119 more industries along the river Ganga that required priority attention for the control of their effluent discharges. The pollution control status of these 119 industries as on March 31, 2003 is provided in Appendix-XII.

Industrial Pollution Control Along the Rivers and lakes

851 defaulting Grossly Polluting Industries located along the rivers and lakes in the country have been identified for priority actions under this programme, which was started in August 1997. The follow-ups for the implementation of the programme, was intensified and at present only five industries are defaulting and the matter is in the Hon’ble Court in respect of three industries and action has been taken against the two remaining defaulters. The State-wise summary status of the 851 industries as on March 31, 2003 is given in Appendix-XIII. The year-wise reduction in the number of defaulters since the start of the programme in 1997 is as shown in Figure. 10.2.

Operational Status of the ETPs installed by the industries located along the rivers & lakes

Directions under Section 18 (1) (b) of the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 have also been issued by CPCB to the SPCBs/PCCs to send quarterly reports on the operational status of ETPs of all the grossly polluting industries located along the rivers and lakes. The directions also required the SPCBs/PCC of Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal and Delhi to send separate such reports of all the water polluting industries (irrespective of size and category) existing in Kanpur, Calcutta and Delhi respectively.

The operational status of 790 industries received from 22 SPCBs/UTs. Out of these 790 units, 619 have installed the requisite treatment facilities, 157 are closed, five are in the process of installing the requisite treatment facilities and there is no effluent treatment facility existing in case of the remaining nine industries.

Out of the 619 units which have installed ETPs, 440 are operating satisfactorily and the operation of the treatment facilities is not satisfactory in respect of 179 units. SPCBs/PCCs have been asked to take action against the units where the operation of treatment facilities is not satisfactory and direct the industries for up-gradation of the design/improvement in the operation of the ETP.

Industrial Pollution Control along the river Yamuna

The water quality of river Yamuna got affected due to discharge of effluents by the industries located upstream Delhi along Western Yamuna Canal and complaints were received from the Delhi Jal Board regarding the presence of ammonia in high concentration and subsequent shut down of the Nangloi and Haiderpur water works affecting the supply of drinking water to most parts of Delhi.

The CPCB has directed Haryana SPCB under section 18 (1) (b) of the Water Act, 1974 requiring the State Board to ensure stoppage of any discharge of industrial effluent as well as untreated sewage into the Western Yamuna Canal. The Chief Engineer, Yamuna Water Services has also been directed not to release water from the Yamuna Nagar Head Works into the abandoned Western Yamuna Canal and to ensure that the flow of any water from this canal does not join the main canal at the Munak regulator.

CAG's Final Report on "Audit of Central Acts of Environment, Funding and Monitoring of Pollution Abatement Schemes relating to Water Pollution"

The Final report no. 3-B of 2001, of the Principal Director of Audit on "Audit of Central Acts of Environment, Funding and Monitoring of Pollution Abatement Schemes relating to Water Schemes" was sent to the SPCBs/PCCs, for information and sending of the Action Taken Reports (ATRs) to CPCB, for sending of combined reply to MoEF.

The Central Pollution Control Board had prepared a comprehensive report on the basis of the responses received from the 20 SPCBs/PCCs covering the action taken on the observations made in the CAG final report.

10.24 INVENTORISATION OF THE RED CATEGORY OF INDUSTRIES OTHER THAN 17 CATEGORIES

Directions under 18 (1) (b) of the Water Act, 1974 and Air Act, 1981 issued to all the SPCBs/PCCs for inventorisation and providing the operational status report (on a six monthly basis) of the pollution control facilities in the red category of industries (other than 17 categories) and the action taken against the defaulting industries. Reports have been received from SPCBs of Goa and Chattishgarh. Reminder sent to the remaining SPCBs/PCCs for obtaining the reports.

10.25 ASSESSMENT OF POLLUTION POTENTIAL IN ZARI INDUSTRIES AND PROBABLE TECHNO-ECONOMIC SOLUTION FOR ITS TREATMENT & SAFE DISPOSAL IN SURAT

There are around 2000 to 2500 benches of gilding units in Zari manufacturing industries in Surat City of Gujarat. These industries are located in the heart of the city. The process involves use and handling of toxic chemicals like acids, Cyanides etc. Due to sheer secrecy and unhealthy competitive practices, Zari industries of Surat could never get the shape, which it could have been acquired by way of upgradation in technology, better processes, effective use of resources and of course less water. To explore the present status and probable solutions for associated environmental problems of Zari industries, the CPCB West Zone office has carried out the study in association with M/s Pollucon Laboratories, Surat.  

The study revealed that the use of Cyanide in the process is as high as 3 MT/month in Surat City. The average consumption of Cyanide is 30-50 kg/month/unit. The use of concentrated Sulphuric acid in Zari industries of Surat is around 2.5 KL per month. In addition to this there is a significant quantity of Nitric and Hydrochloric acid is also used on the process units. These chemicals as such do not go with the final product i.e. Zari and hence find the way in either water or air environment. These facts reveal the gravity of the situation in Zari industries.  

The main pollution is in the form of effluent, which content high amount of Copper, Cyanide and Silver. The wastewater to be drained out from the different stages were characterized and it is found that the concentration of theses parameters varies between 4.91 to 7460, 51.5 to 572 & 2.5 to 86 mg/l for Copper, Cyanide and Silver respectively. During the survey it is understood that causality occurs in Zari industries due to inhalation of Cyanide fumes at the time of Silver salt precipitation (Neutralization) from the effluent. 

Being in congested area, it is not possible for individual units to provide treatment facility for the wastewater. The adequate common treatment system supported with appropriate collection mechanism is best suited for the treatment of the effluent generated. Similarly, immediate action is required to provide for proper hood, ducting, scrubbing and exhaust system for venting the toxic fumes/gases.

10.26 REVIEW OF PROBLEM AREAS IN GUJARAT & MAHARASTRA

Vapi

Action Points at Vapi have been complied, by now. However, the drains (particularly, the Bill Khadi) continued to be flowing with effluent. A Meeting regarding the Action plan on Air Pollution at Vapi was attended, which was prepared by GPCB, in consultation with CPCB and other concerned State Departments. 

Ankleshwar

Most of the Action Points at Ankleshwar have been complied, some revised points of action suggested. - Improvement in respect of drainage network and solid waste management, also – Effluent conveyance project of pipeline (35 km long) is in advanced planning stage

A Meeting on Action plan on Air Pollution for the Ankleshwar was attended, which was prepared by GPCB, in consultation with CPCB and other concerned State Departments. 

Tarapur 

Tarapur Industrial Estate in Maharashtra state has been identified as a problem area because of high pollution potential generated by the industries, especially, chemical industries located in Tarapur. The action plan for the problem area has been prepared and various efforts have been made to implement the action plan. The time targeted action plan was prepared to solve the air pollution, water pollution and solid waste management problems in the industrial estate. Organizations like, Maharashtra Pollution Control Board, MIDC & Tarapur Industries Association are responsible for implementation of the action plan. As a follow up action Central Pollution Control Board reviews the action plan time-to-time. 

Though the concerned agencies in the area are making efforts for implementation of the action plan. However, there are lacunae in implementation part. During the study it has been found that, the concerned authorities are not maintaining industrial area in a environmental friendly manner, the Hazardous waste are dumped here and there, effluent are flowing in open drain, odour nuisances, soil contamination etc. are the common phenomenon. The MIDC drainage lines are under-designed and not being maintained properly too. At some places the manhole & pipelines of MIDC drainage were found to be broken and effluent was finding its way in to earthen drains, which ultimately meets the Arabian Sea. Industrial solid/hazardous waste was also found to be dumped on the roadside at various places in the area in addition to the MIDC solid waste dumping plots in the industrial estate. The CETP is also dumping its sludge at unknown places. Patches of coloured effluent and flow of acidic coloured water in natural earthen drain was observed at various places, which shows that the activities like illegal discharge of effluent and dumping of solid waste in haphazard manner are in practice by the industries. Similarly, the acidic pH was also observed in MIDC effluent collection sump ranging between 2 to 4. It is understood that the raw water supply from April 2002 to July 2002 to the member CETP unit was around 6 MLD and the effluent generation was around 3.5 MLD. However the effluent quantity reaching to the CETP is only 87,000 M3/day, which is hardly 1/4th of the total quantity. This shows that many member industries are discharging their untreated effluent into MIDC drainage line and damaging the effluent carrying system. 

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