CHAPTER X

ENVIRONMENTAL STANDARDS INCLUDING SCHEDULE
FOR THEIR ENFORCEMENT

10.27 POLLUTION CONTROL IN ASBESTOS INDUSTRY

Human Risk Assessment in Asbestos Industry

The study includes environmental monitoring at asbestos-based industries, detailed medical examination of industrial workers, geno-toxicological evaluation of asbestos exposed population and recommendations for preventive measures in industrial units. First interim report has been prepared and second interim report is under preparation. Recently, asbestos milling units located in Beawar and nearby area have been studied including monitoring of asbestos fibre.

Environment Policy for Asbestos Sector

The Central Pollution Control Board has examined the environmental issues pertaining to asbestos and it has advised the government for policy decision based on the following considerations:

Revision of Emission Standards for Asbestos based Industries

The emission standards for asbestos based industries of 4 fibre/cc for pure asbestos material and 2 mg/Nm3 for total dust, were notified in the year 1989. After discussions with industries, experts and Asbestos Information Centre, following revised emission standards have been suggested.

Pollutant

Proposed Emission Limit

Pure Asbestos Material

0.5 fibre*/cc

Total Dust

2 mg/Nm3

* Fibres of length more than 5 µm and diameter less than 3 µm with an aspect ratio of 3 or more.

    1. Emission Standards notified under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 for DG sets and Boilers shall be applicable, in case asbestos industry owns it.
    2. General Emission Standards notified under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 shall be applicable for processes from where there is no possibility of asbestos fibre emission such as cement silo, flyash silo.

10.28 POLLUTION CONTROL IN CEMENT INDUSTRY

Implementation of Environmental Standards in Cement Plants :

There are 125 cement plants in the country having capacities more than 200 tpd each. Out of these 4 plants do not comply with environmental standards. The National Task Force (NTF) constituted by the CPCB for the implementation of Environmental Standards in cement plants under the Chairmanship of Shri Paritosh C. Tyagi, Ex Chairman, CPCB held four meeting and visited Grinding unit of Gujarat Ambuja Cements Ltd., Ropar. The environmental issues discussed in the NTF meetings are given below:

Assessment of utilization of industrial solid waste in cement manufacturing

Many industries generate solid waste during the process of manufacturing e.g. blast furnace slag, red mud, metallurgical slag, lime mud & phosphogypsum are generated from Integrated Iron & Steel Plants; Aluminium Industry; Copper, Lead and Zinc Industry; Pulp & Paper Industry; and Phosphoric Acid manufacturing respectively. The huge amount of the solid wastes requires a large area of land for their disposal. This has made a large area of the land unsuitable for any use by the society. Also number of environmental pollution problems are associated with the disposal of these industrial solid wastes on land such as contamination of ground water, contamination of surface water and air pollution due to fine particles getting air borne. However, these solid wastes appear to have good potential value for different useful purposes. The cement industry has scope to utilize these solid wastes as raw material or blending material to produce different varieties of cement. CPCB initiated a study on "Assessment of utilization of industrial solid waste in cement manufacturing" in collaboration with the National Council for Cement and Building Materials, New Delhi. Assessment studies on utilization of solid wastes in cement manufacturing, will not only help in solving the environmental pollution problems associated with the disposal of waste but also conserve our raw material resources, which are limited.

Assessment of fugitive emissions and Development of Environmental guidelines for control of fugitive emissions in cement manufacturing industries

In cement manufacturing, fugitive emissions are generated at various stages of manufacturing process. The degree of fugitive emissions and the type of controls adopted by various industries varies from industry to industry. It is generally observed that in most cement industries, the measures taken or the controls adopted for controlling these fugitive emissions are not always satisfactory and as a result substantial quantity of fugitive emissions are generated which spread within and outside the industry premises and causes adverse impacts on human health and other environmental damages.

The overall scenario in cement manufacturing industries in terms of controlling fugitive emissions needs to be improved, and hence there is a need for developing guideline/standard for the same.

10.29 POLLUTION CONTROL IN THERMAL POWER PLANTS

Implementation of standards in thermal power plants:

There are 83 coal based thermal power plants of which 4 plants are closed.

National Task Force (NTF) constituted for implementation of standards in thermal power plants met twice in the year. NTF reviewed the status of non compliant power plants and decided that these plants shall prepare an action plan for installation/augmention of pollution control systems in time bound manner under CEA’ R & M programme. In addition NTF suggested the following:

Implementation and use of beneficiated coal

Power plants will sign fuel supply agreement (FSA) to meet the requirement as per the matrix prepared by CEA for compliance of the notification as short term measure.

Options/mechanism for setting up of coal washeries:

Power plants will indicate their requirement for ash disposal in abandoned mines and Coal India Ltd./ Ministry of Coal shall provide list of abandoned coal mines by June 2003 to CEA

Power plants to provide dry flyash to the users outside the premises or uninterrupted excess within six months.

Power Plants should provide dry flyash free of cost to the users .

State PWDs/construction & development agencies shall also be adhered to the Schedules/Specifications of CPWD for ash/ ash based product utilisation. The Ministry of Environment & Forests will take up the matter with State Governments.

(i) New thermal power plants to be accorded environmental clearance on or after 1.4.2003 shall adopt dry extraction or dry ash disposal or Medium (35-40%) ash concentration slurry disposal system or lean phase with hundred percent ash water re-circulation system depending upon the site specific environmental situation.

(ii) Existing plants shall adopt any of the systems mentioned in 13 (i) by December 2003.

Flyash Mission shall prepare guidelines/manual for utilisation of flyash by March, 2004.

New plants shall promote adoption of clean coal and clean power generation technologies

Adoption of Medium Concentration Ash Slurry Disposal System

A study on evaluation on alternate coal ash disposal technologies was completed in association with IIT, Delhi and Flyash Mission. Various methods of ash disposal such as, Medium concentration, High concentration and dry ash disposal in mound form were evaluated considering their technical feasibility, water, land and energy requirements including cost- benefit in comparison to conventional lean phase ash disposal system. Findings of the study suggest that Medium Concentration Ash Slurry Disposal (MCSD) having ash concentration 35 to 45 % is not only more economical but also require less water, land and energy for disposal of ash. Thus adoption of MCSD will also lead to reduction in environmental pollution. The CPCB has approved the adoption of MCSD system in new/ expansion power projects in its Board meeting held in march, 2002. The recommendation of the Board have been communicated to MOEF for implementation while granting environmental clearance to new/ expansion power projects .

Report on Evaluation of Clean Coal Technologies

A report on " Evaluation of Clean Coal Technologies" was brought out. The report examines the current status of coal combustion & processing technologies, and their viability in Indian context. The technologies examined include the following:

Studies in progress
  1. Leachability assessment of trace heavy metals from ash ponds to groundwater

The study is undertaken with association of IIT, Kanpur. Field investigations have been completed. The findings of the study will suggest extent of leaching of trace metals from ash ponds and its impact on ground water quality. Guidelines for prevention & control of leaching of trace metals including better ash pond management practices will also be prepared.

(ii) Cost Benefit analysis including environmental benefits of recycling of ash pond effluents in thermal power plants

The study is undertaken with association of IIT, Kanpur. Field investigations have been completed. The findings of the study will suggest feasibility of recycling of ash pond effluent and its benefits with reference to water and energy conservation besides mitigating environmental problems. Based on the findings of the study, guidelines for better ash pond water recycling systems will also be prepared.

    1. Assessment of mercury, lead, arsenic & fluoride emissions from coal based thermal power plants

The study is undertaken with PCRI, BHEL; Haridwar. The study will cover the identification of coal linkages of various coal fired thermal power plants, coal qualities with reference to above elements and development of guidelines/ emission standards for control of toxic trace elements from coal fired power plants. The particle size analysis will also be carried out for assessment of contribution of PM10 in the ambient air from coal based thermal power plants.

Status of Pollution Control In Thermal Power Plants in Uttar Pradesh

There are 12 thermal power plants in Uttar Pradesh, out of which 10 are Coal based and 2 are gas based. CPCB has undertaken a study to assess the status of pollution control in Thermal power plants of UP with following objectives:

Detailed study of the four Thermal Power Plants has been conducted so far. The study indicated that Thermal Power Plants have installed Electrostatic Precipitators for control of fly ash from flue gases emanating from boiler. ESP outlet duct at each power plant was monitored with a view to assess the efficacy of the ESPs.

It is clear from the result that efficiency of ESPs is not up to the mark except in Renusagar Plant. Problem lies with proper maintenance of ESPs and high ash content in coal. Thermal power plants are using coal having ash content in the range of 35-45% while their ESPs are designed for 30-35% ash content in coal. It was also observed that improper evacuation of ash from ESP hopper affects the ESP efficiency. Power Plants have adopted wet disposal system for bottom ash as well as fly ash from ESP hopper. Despite notification, ash utilization was observed very low in all plants.

Fugitive dust emission from coal handling plant, coal crusher and boiler section are other problems in thermal power plants. Although Plants have made arrangement of water sprinkling system on coal yard, conveyer belt and dust extraction system in coal crusher, still emissions are quite high.

Thermal Power Plants require huge amount of water for condenser cooling. Hot water is being discharged to the water body from all plants may cause thermal pollution and affect the aquatic life.

Ash pond of Panki Thermal Power plant, Kanpur has been filled up completely and ash pond overflow is carrying excessive ash, to out side drain which in turn meets with river Pandu. Stack emissions in terms of particulate matter were observed more than the stipulated norms (Table 10.7 & Fig 10.3).

Table 10.7 Emissions from Power Plants in Uttar Prades

 

Thermal Power Plant

Unit No

Capacity/Load

(MW)

Concentration of particulate matter in Flue gas

(Mg/Nm3)

Panki Thermal , Kanpur

Unit III

 

Unit IV

110/71

 

110/85

3087

 

1865

NTPC, Unchahar

Unit I

Unit II

Unit III

Unit IV

220/170

220/195

220/185

220/172

225

239

320

136

Renusagar Thermal Power Plant

Unit II

Unit IV

Unit VI

Unit VII

Unit VIII

Unit IX

67.5/68

67.5/60

74/67.5

67.5/74.8

67.5/74

75/77

316

135

123

118

118

128

Anpara Thermal Power Plant

Unit I

Unit II

Unit III

Unit IV

Unit V

220/180

220/180

220/160

500/500

500/500

1008

366

883

604

522



 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 







Anpara Thermal Power plant was observed discharging its ash slurry directly to the Rihand Reservoir and huge ash deposits are visible, where ash slurry is being discharged. Its new ash pond could not be commissioned so far. Plat has commissioned dry ash collection facility (250 TPD) against total generation of 10,000 TPD ash water conservation is poor in the plant.

Unchahar Thermal power plant is located amid agricultural fields and villages. Despite of all efforts to control fugitive dust from coal handling plant and boiler section, fine coal and ash dust is always a problem for the nearby villagers. Ash pond has been built on sandy bed near river Ganga, where possibility of ash pond seepage exists.

Construction of New ash pond of Renu Sagar Thermal Power plant is in progress. Existing ash pond is on the hilltop having area of about 28 hectares, which has been filled up. Ash pond is continuously being evacuated in order to make the extra space for accumulation of fresh ash slurry in parts and ash is being sent to new ash pond through trucks. This is creating dusty environment in the area although industry is making all possible efforts to suppress the dust from ash pond through sprinkling of water. All treated effluent and ash pond overflow is being used in the plant after treatment in order to conserve the water.

Power Plants in Southern States

Seven power plants located in Ramagundam, Vijayawada, Kothagudam, Rayalseema (A.P.) and Raichur (Karnataka) were monitored. The stack Emission Results for Particulate Matter (PM) are presented in Table 10.8.

Table 10.8 Stack Emissions from Thermal Power Plants

NTPC,Ramagundam

APGENCO,Vijayawada

Unit-1 (200MW)

NM

Unit-1 (210MW)

NM

Unit-2 (200MW)

NM

Unit-2 (210MW)

NM

Unit-3 (200MW)

NM

Unit-3 (210MW)

NM

Unit-4 (500MW)

68

Unit-4 (210MW)

609

Unit-5 (500MW)

BD

Unit-5 (210MW)

148

Unit-6 (500MW)

111

Unit-6 (210MW)

159

APGENCO, Kothagudam (Stage-I)

APGENCO, Kothagudam (Stage-II)

Unit-1 (60MW)

1593

Unit-9 (250MW)

381

Unit-2 (60MW)

1283

Unit-10 (250MW)

269

Unit-3 (60MW)

731

   

Unit-4 (60MW)

2397

 

Unit-5 (120MW)

823

   

Unit-6 (120MW)

5386

   

Unit-6 (110MW)

2196

   

Unit-6 (110MW)

8513

   

KPCL, Raichur

APGENCO, Rayalseema

Unit-1 (210MW)

283

Unit-1 (MW)

906

Unit-2 (210MW)

299

Unit-2 (MW)

272

Unit-3 (210MW)

302

   

Unit-4 (210MW)

301

   

Unit-5 (210MW)

NM

   

Unit-6 (210MW)

197

   

Note:- a) All values are expressed in mg/Nm3, NM (Not Monitored due to insufficient provisions as per Emission Regulation-III ), BD (Unit Breakdown).

b) The standard emission values are 150 mg/Nm3.

No power plant except NTPC, Ramagundam was found to be meeting emission standards.

10.30 EVALUATION OF TECHNOLOGICAL AND MANAGEMENT PERFORMANCE OF CETPS

The Ministry of Environment & Forests, has so far approved 133 Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP) projects of which 52 schemes have been completed and operational. The remaining 81 are under various stages of development. The concept of CETP calls for management of technical, financial and institutional aspects and their inter-relationships to achieve their intended objectives. Few random studies of CETPs have shown mixed results about their performances. In order to develop comprehensive and systematic strategies for the effective functioning of CETPs, a project has been undertaken for a detailed study of performance and management of all the 52 CETPs that are currently operational in the country. The objectives of the project are:

  1. Evaluation of the performance of various components of the CETPs including collection, transportation and treatment systems
  2. Assessment of performance of various organizational/ management set-ups to identify their merits and drawbacks
  3. Development of comprehensive monitoring and management strategies for effective functioning of CETPs under different types of management structure

Field study of the all the CETPs has already been completed. The aspects studied include:

Some of the major observations during the study are:

    1. Plants managed by the CETP Association/ Company formed by the industries
    2. Plants managed by private consultants/ contractors – including collection, transportation, calculation of charges, billing and revenue collection on management contract basis
    3. Technical operation and maintenance of the hardware and laboratory contracted to private consultants. Billing and collection of treatment charges managed by the CETP Association/ Company.

10.31 PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF EFFLUENT/WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS

Performance Evaluation of Dairy Units of West Bengal

With increase in demand for milk & milk products, many dairies of different size scale have came up in various parts. Large quantity of waste water originates due to their different operations and primarily from the washings of different vats & equipment. The wastewater is highly biodegradable and if directly discharged to aquatic streams, the pollution problem may arise.

In view of the above, a project was undertaken to assess the present scenario of Dairy industries in West Bengal especially with reference to their Effluent Treatment Systems. Eight units as below were selected. Two units of NDDB, five of West Bengal Milk Federation and one in Private Sector.

    1. Mother Dairy
    2. Metro Dairy
    3. State Dairy, Haringhata
    4. State Dairy, Belgachia
    5. State Dairy, Durgapur
    6. State Dairy, Burdwan
    7. Sate Dairy, Krishna nagar
    8. Thacker Dairy Products Pvt. Ltd.

The ETP System of Mother Dairy and Metro Dairy is based on Activated Sludge Process where as Thacker Dairy is having only Chemical Oxidation by floating submercible aeration. The State Dairy Belgachia and Haringhata, though very old, are not having any ETP and still in planning and construction stage. The other three State Dairies are having Oxidation Ditch.

As the technology of milk processing has become more advanced and wastage or spoilage of milk is practically negligible, the present pollution load effluent is not significant considering the limit of discharge BOD of 100 mg/l and total suspended solid of 150 mg/l.

Performance Evaluation of Wastewater Treatment Plants

Performance evaluation of 14 wastewater treatment systems working on different technologies (diffused aeration, surface aeration and rotating biological contactors), treating industrial waste as well as domestic waste was carried out. The efficiency and energy requirement of each system was evaluated. The treatment systems of various categories of industries - pharmaceuticals, silk, garment washing and stitching, information technology, milk processing, hotel, engineering and brewery was studied in addition to domestic sewage treatment plants.

Surface aeration (SA) is used in old plants as well as in common effluent treatment plants (CETPs), where high quantity of effluent is to be treated. Diffused aeration (DA) has been used in comparatively newer plants for both domestic and industrial wastes and it seems to be most common and popular technology. The rotating biological contactors (RBC) was limited in various plants, designed to treat sewage up to a capacity of 100 MLD.

The BOD removal efficiency of ETPs with SA technology varied between 79 to 97%. DA technology is adapted for treatment of domestic and industrial wastes and depict satisfactory results with respect to BOD removal. Although, treatment plants with RBC technology at two different industries showed satisfactory results, yet these plants requires skilled operation and supervision.

The RBC technology has the advantage of low power consumption over other technologies. Diffused aeration, though one of the most effective means of biological treatment has disadvantage of high power consumption.

From the study, it was concluded that surface aeration technology is economically viable for larger plants, and its operation and maintenance cost is higher. Diffused aeration has higher efficiency, but requires less energy than surface aeration. The rotating biological contactor technology is economical and suitable for smaller plants. It has unique advantage of occupying lesser area in addition to low power consumption. RBC plants have higher initial investments but maintenance cost is much lower. Augmentation of diffused aeration with anaerobic lagoon has shown appreciable results.

Evaluation of Performance and Management practices of Common Effluent Treatment Plants (CETPs)

To address the issues associated with performance and management practices in CETPs, a comprehensive project is being executed. In this project, detailed studies of two CETPs viz. Unnao (UP), Kanpur (UP) have been completed while study for Jallundher (Punjab) CETP has to be undertaken.

Unnao CETP

The CETP is designed to cater for 21 industrial units engaged in tanning and allied jobs. During the study 13 units were found operational while 8 units were defunct. The plant received 80 KLD average flow. With regard to designed efficiency, the plant has shown 98 to 99 % compliance in terms of designated parameters, which includes BOD, COD, SS and chromium. The performance has been good, in spite of excessively high content of chromium and BOD in the raw (inlet) wastewater received at CETP. The high content of chromium is a clear indication of poor operation of chrome recovery plants at various member units.

Kanpur (Jajmau) CETP

The CETP caters to 354 industrial units. Out of these, 6 units are of large scale, 10 medium and remaining 338 are small scale units. All these units are engaged in tanning and allied operations. While 41 units are under closure, 210 units perform chrome tanning operation, 49 vegetable tanning and 52 are engaged in leather splitting / board operations. During the study the plant was operational and had received approximately 33.6 MLD combined wastewater wherein, the tannery wastewater and sewage were blended in proportion of 1: 1.47 as against the designed ratio of 1:3 respectively. This is indicative of excessively higher contribution of tannery wastewater which is quite harmful for the plant's performance due to significantly modified characteristics of the combined wastewater fed to the UASB reactors.

As regards designated efficiency, status of compliance, that only SS has shown an overall reduction more than the designed capacity while all other designated parameters viz. BOD, COD and (total) chromium have shown lesser than the designed reduction. A notable observation during the study has been high concentration of chromium in the combined tannery wastewater received at CETP which is very likely affect the performance of the plant. The most probable reason for high chromium content is poor operation of pre-treatment units in the member tanneries.

10.32 STATUS OF WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES INCLUDING CONSUMPTION OF CHEMICALS/ DISINFECTANTS IN WATER TREATMENT PLANTS AND MANAGEMENT OF WASTEWATER/ SLUDGE

The municipalities and corporations are under stress to provide adequate basic amenities such as water supply, sanitation and infrastructure to cope-up with pace of urbanisation. Urban activities do have a negative influence on quality of intake water. Besides the rejects from water treatment plants i.e. filter back-wash water and sludge generated from treatment units require proper disposal. The quantity of the backwash water varies with the influent quality, which ranges from 3 to 5% i.e. a plant of 100 MGD capacity will generate 3 to 5 MGD back wash water. The amount of chemical consumption varies from plant to plant and often there is a lack of control on chemical consumption. With this background, the Central Pollution Control Board has taken-up the project to study the chemical consumption and waste management patterns in the water treatment plants. Under the study, many treatment plants have been visited for dry and wet studies. Some specific field studies at fluorosis and arsenic affected areas are also under the progress. The broad observations on the treatment plants indicate that there is a need for rationalising the process and disposal mechanism, which may require, administrative and operational measures.

Comparative Evaluation of Technologies for Aerobic Treatment of Organic Pollutants

Environmental Pollution Abatement for industrial and domestic wastewater has become an absolute necessity. The treatment of wastewater is essentially a multistage treatment unit, in which the effluent goes through physical, chemical and biological treatments, before it is ready to be reclaimed. Wastewater purification involves degradation of the biodegradable waste by the action of aerobic or anaerobic bacteria or both and then reduction precipitation at various stages of treatment. Some of the common treatment technologies adopted are:

    1. Anaerobic:
      1. Anaerobic Lagoon
      2. Upflow anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB)
      3. Anaerobic filters
    2. Aerobic:
      1. Surface aeration (SA)
      2. Diffused aeration (DA)
      3. Rotating Biological Contactors (RBC)

With a view to evaluate the performance of aerobic systems, a total of 12 units in Bangalore city were studied towards their performance in respect of efficacy during off season transfer and the economic viability. One day 8-hourly composite samples were collected from progressive units of the treatment plant to check their efficiency. The major observations are as follows:

Choice of Technology

    1. It was observed that surface aeration has been used in either very old plants i.e., more than 10 years old or in CETP’s, where the proposed quantities of effluents to be treated are quite high.
    2. Diffused aeration has been used in comparatively newer plants for both industrial and domestic waste and it seems to be the most common and popular technology adopted.
    3. RBC technology was found only in very limited number of plants and that too treating mainly sewage up to a capacity of 220 m3/day.
    4. UASB Reactors & Anaerobic lagoons were provided in industries with high inlet BOD values or with higher flows into the ETP.

Efficiency

It was observed that out of the 12 plants monitored, only 8 plants adhered to the compliance standards.

    1. It was observed that plants with UASB reactor followed by Surface aeration showed good results. This also helped in power consumption reduction.
    2. Anaerobic lagoon augmented with SA or DA showed appreciable results with the advantage of lower power consumption.
    3. Diffused aeration also showed good results except in cases where the plant was overloaded. However, the power consumption was found higher in this case.
    4. Surface aeration also showed effective results although it has the disadvantage of having dead pockets in the system.

Power Consumption

The anaerobic systems have the unique advantage of treating the waste without any energy requirement, except the energy required for pumping into the system. Among the aerobic technologies, the RBC technology has the unique advantage of low power consumption over all other technologies. Diffused aeration, though one of the most effective methods of biological treatment has the disadvantage of high power consumption. The power requirement in RBC plant is just 35 – 40% of that of diffused aeration or surface aeration

Conclusion

    1. It is concluded that surface aeration is more suitable for larger plants only, where the initial cost of investment may be a constraint. Of all the other technologies, the initial cost of investment is lowest in this.
    2. The diffused aeration system has higher efficiency therefore best suited for individual industries but power requirement is high. The other advantages are:-
      1. Full depth mixing at any depth.
      2. Full basin utilization with large number of energy points and full basin distribution.
      3. Fine pore diffusers act as hydraulic baffles to eliminate sport circulating.
      4. Lower energy requirement than surface aeration.

    3. Rotating Biological Contactors (RBC):
    4. This is more suitable and economical for smaller plants of upto 250 m3/day. The advantages of RBC are: -

      1. Low power consumption.
      2. Lower area requirement.
      3. Discs are biologically inert. Hence they require no replacement.

      RBC plants have higher initial investment, but the running costs are much lower owing to lower power consumption.

    5. Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) Reactors:
    6. They are suitable for industries with concentrated wastes and higher flows. Augmentation of UASB with one of the aerobic systems provide good results. The advantages of this system are:

      1. Negligible power requirement
      2. Methane gas can be trapped and used.
      3. The operational costs are minimal.

    7. Anaerobic Lagoon:

They are suitable in industries with high inlet BODs. At some places, the anaerobic lagoons have been found to reduce BOD to the extent of 50%. Augmentation of this system with one of the aerobic technologies provides good results. The advantages of this system are:

      1. No power consumption.
      2. Upto 50% BOD Reduction.

Overall, it has been found that all the treatment technologies are effective, if judiciously designed. However, considering the energy requirements and the final compliance standards, it is concluded that augmentation of one of the anaerobic system with any one of the aerobic system provides good results with the advantage of lowering the energy requirements as well.

10.33 STUDIES CONDUCTED IN NORTH-EASTERN STATES

Environmental Status at the Refineries in Assam

There are four refineries in Assam - Digboi Refinery, Guwahati Refinery, Bongaigaon Refinery and Numaligarh Refinery. To assess the emissions in the refineries, stack monitoring was carried out (30 stacks in total). Effluent samples were also collected from various segments of ETPs for performance eveluation of ETPs and also from the storm water drains to assess the quality of effluent discharged from the refineries.

Environmental status of oil-fields in Upper Assam

There are a number of oil-fields in Upper Assam, mainly in the districts of Sibasagar, Jorhat, Tinsukia and Dibrugarh. Under the project, Reconnaissance Survey and Inventorisation for oil drilling units in Upper Assam, most of the oil-fields in Upper Assam were studied. The study helped to understand the nature and sources of pollution in oil-fields and to inspect the pollution abatement measures.

Environmental Status in Coal Mining areas in Assam

Makum Coalfields is the main coal field in Assam and is situated in the Patki Hills in the foothills of the Himalayas. At present there are six working mines in the coal field which include two open-cast mining projects, Tikak OCP and Tirap OCP and four underground mines namely Tipong, Ledo, Borgolai and Joypore mines. Makum coalfield was visited and ambient air quality monitoring was carried out at four places in the surrounding residential area. Study was also conducted for reclaimation measures adopted by the Coal Mining Authority and pollution control measures adopted by North Eastern Coalfields, CIL.

Status of Compliance in Cement Industries in North-east

Cement industries, being high polluting industries, draw lots of public complaints for causing air pollution. To assess the status of environmental compliance in the major cement industries, stack monitoring and ambient air quality monitoring studies were conducted at 20 stacks of seven units.

Mercury Pollution by Chlor-alkali Industry

Nagaon Paper Mill, Jagiroad, was visited to collect information regarding mercury consumption in chlor-alkali plant of the mill and also to collect samples from various points for performance evaluation of ETP. Wastewater and sludge samples generated by the industry were also analysed for mercury content.

Status of Compliance in Fertilizer Industries

M/s Brahmaputra Valley Fertilizer Corporation, Namrup, was visited and stack monitoring was conducted in 3 stacks to know the status of emission. Ambient air monitoring was also conducted in two residential areas in the surroundings of the industry.

Status of Lime Kilns

There are number of lime kilns in Meghalaya distributed in various districts. A cluster of lime kilns located at Cherapunjee was inspected along with the officials of the Meghalaya State Pollution Control Board.

Tea Industry

Some tea factories were visited to understand the pollution problems in tea industry and to collect data regarding use of pesticides/weedicides in the tea gardens. Inventorisation of tea industries in Assam is also being carried out. Samples from tea factory have been collected for residual pesticide analysis in green leaves, tea and in wastewater.

10.34 PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF POLLUTION CONTROL FACILITIES IN SUGAR INDUSTRY IN BIHAR

Out of 28 sugar units in Bihar State, only 10 private owned mills were in operation during 2002-3003 crushing season. The remaining units under either government or private sector were closed down due to losses in operation. Most of these sugar mills are located in sugarcane growing rural areas of north Bihar. The sugar Industry is identified as one of the high polluting industries under 17 categories, CPCB Eastern Zonal Office, Kolkata in association with Bihar State Pollution Control Board conducted a study to assess performance evaluation of pollution control facilities in all the operating sugar industry in Bihar State.

Studies were conducted at nine operating units. Wastewater samples were collected from different points across the ETP to assess unit-wise performance. Wastewater samples were also collected from combined outlets after mixing with cooling water. To assess status of compliance of emission norms, stack monitoring was conducted at random from highly polluting stacks. The study indicate that out of 10 sugar industries in operation, only M/s Harinagar Sugar Mills was able to achieve the stipulated norms. In remaining units, M/s Vishnu Sugar Mills, M/s Rega Sugar Mills and M/s M.P Udyog, Majhouli have to further improve their operational practices to achieve full compliance. None of the units except M/s Harinagar Sugar Mills studied were able to achieve surface water discharge norms for Suspended Solids. Performance of ETPs in other five industries was very poor. The main reason for non-compliance is poor operation and maintenance and lack of concern on the issue of wastewater treatment by the industry. Almost all the units have dust collectors but the efficiency of dust collection from the hopper was very poor. Specific water consumption was found between 2 to 5 m3 per ton of cane crushed. However, it was highest increase of M/s Rega and lowest in case of M/s Harinagar Sugar Mills. The study also highlights the corrective measure for individual industries and common problems among all mills.

10.35 CHARTER ON CORPORATE RESPONSIBILITY FOR ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION (CREP)

Industrial development is an important constituent in our pursuit for economic growth, employment generation and betterment in the quality of life. On the other hand, industrial activities without proper precautionary measures for environmental protection are known to cause pollution and associated problems. Hence, it is necessary to comply with the regulatory norms for prevention and control of pollution. Alongside, it is also imperative to go beyond compliance through adoption of clean technologies and improvement in management practices. Commitment and voluntary initiatives of industry for responsible care of the environment will help in building a partnership for pollution control. This is the very purpose of the Charter on Corporate Responsibility for Environmental protection.

Table 10.9 Details of Interaction Meetings for various Industrial categories

S.No.

Industrial Sector

Venue and Organiser

Date

1.

Aluminium

Kolkata by WBPCB

12.12.2002

2.

Cement

Ballabhgarh by NCB

05.12.2002

3.

Chlor-alkali

Ahmedabad by GPCB

18.01.2003

4.

Copper

Kolkata by WBPCB

12.12.2002

5.

Distillery

Mumbai by MPCB

03.01.2003

6.

Dyes and Dye Intermediates

Ahmedabad by GPCB

07.01.2003

7.

Fertilizer

Ahmedabad by GPCB

08.01.2003

8.

Iron & Steel

Kiolkata by WBPCB

12.12.2002

9.

Oil Refineries

Guwahati by APCB

10.01.2003

10.

Pesticides

Ahmedabad by GPCB

07.01.2003

11.

Petrochemicals

Guwahati by APCB

09.01.2003

12.

Pharmaceuticals

Hyderabad by APPCB

11.12.2002

13.

Pulp & Paper

Lucknow by UPPCB

14.12.2002

14.

Sugar

Mumabi by MPCB

03.01.2003

15.

Tannery

Chennai by CLRI

02.01.2003

16.

Thermal Power Plants

Delhi by CPCB

23.12.2002

17.

Zinc

Kolkata by WBPCB

12.12.2002

With this in view, a series of industry –specific interaction meetings (Table 10.9) have been organised to formulate the Charter. The action points enlisted in the Charter are addressed to corporate bodies as well as regulatory agencies. Thus, the Charter is a commitment for partnership and participatory action of the concerned stakeholders. The Charter is also a road map for progressive improvement in environmental management systems. Thus, it is not necessarily limited to compliance of end-of-the-pipe effluent and emission standards. In a number of industrial sectors, the targets set in the Charter are ahead of effluent and emission standards.

10.36 VEHICULAR POLLUTION CONTROL

Vehicular Emission Norms :

(I) Following emission norms for vehicles has been notified by Ministry of Road Transport & Highways (MoRTH) through standing committee on emission legislation in which CPCB is a member

    1. Bharat (Trem) stage-II and Bharat (Trem) Stage-III emission norms for Tractors effective from 1.1.2003 and 1.4.2005 respectively.
    2. Bharat Stage-II emission norms for transport vehicles applicable in Kanpur, Pune, Ahemdabad, Bangalore, Hyderabad & Secunderabad effective from 1.4. 2003.
    3. Emission norms of diesel vehicles fitted with LPG engine effective from May 2003.
    4. Draft Bharat Stage- II norms for two wheelers effective from 1.4.2005

  1. The standing committee on emission legislations (MoRTH) has recommended following emission norms for in-use vehicles

S.No

Vehicle type

Present Norms

Proposed Norms

CO %

HC(ppm)

CO %

HC(ppm)

1

2 Wheelers ( 2/4 stroke) & 3 wheelers ( Pre year 2000)

4.5

-

4.5

9000

2

2 Wheelers ( 2-stroke) & 3 wheelers ( Post year 2000)

4.5

-

3.5

6000

3

2 & 3 Wheelers (4 stroke) ( Post year 2000)

4.5

-

3.5

4500

4

4 wheeler vehicles (Post year 2000) ( Petrol/ CNG/LPG)

3.0

-

3.0

1500

5

Bharat Stage-II compliant Passenger cars/CNG Buses/ LPG (Fittted with 3 way closed loop catalytic converter

3.0

-

0.5

750

2. Fuel Quality :

Conventional Fuel

Alternate Fuel

CNG

CNG Stations

1.4.2002

1.4.2003

Mother Stations

25

47

Online Stations

13

20

Daughter booster

26

29

Daughter Stations

30

11

Total

94

107

Number of CNG vehicles

Type

Number of vehicles

1.4.2002

1.4.2003

Cars

15166

19000

Autos

36565

49810

RTVs

2165

4935

Buses

4231

8874

Total

58127

82619

Average consumption
( Tonnes/day)

355

674

Price in Rs/Kg

13.11

16.83

Other Measures

The Expert Committee on Auto Fuel Policy has submitted final report to Government of India during September 2002. The report is also available on web- site www. auto fuel policy.org

Following are the road map for emission norms for new vehicles

Supreme Court Matter related to Vehicular Pollution Control

The Hon’ble Supreme Court of India, in the matter of CWP No. 13029 of 1995 , passed the orders on 05.04.2001, regarding formulation and implementation of action plans for control of pollution in selected cities. The Hon’ble Court stressed the need for such initiatives relating to vehicular pollution in Delhi and directed that action plans for pollution control in the cities/ towns which do not meet the ambient air quality standards should be prepared. The court order among other things, stated as under :

" We may here note that there are as per CPCB data at least nine other polluted cities in India where the air quality is critical. These cities are Agra, Lucknow, Jharia, Kanpur, Varanasi, Faridabad, Patna, Jodhpur and Pune. But there appears to be no effective action plan to address the problems of the cities] ----.If no immediate action is taken then it may become necessary for some orders being passed so as to bring relief to the residents of these cities."

Further, the court ordered the Union of India and all other governmental authorities as under:

" Prepare a scheme containing a time schedule for supply of CNG to other polluted cities of India and furnish the same to this court by 9th May, 2002. "

The Hon’ble Court considered the matter on 09.05.2002 and among other things, issued following direction:

" Union of India will give a scheme with regard to compulsory switchover of all the two–wheelers, three wheelers and motor vehicles to LPG/CNG in cities other than Delhi which are equally or more polluted".

Central Pollution Control Board has identified 53 non-attainment cities with respect to air pollution. CPCB has also identified four cities namely Ahemdabad, Pune, Kolkata & Kanpur which are equally or more polluted than Delhi. CPCB has asked concerned state pollution control boards to prepare & revise action plan for control of air pollution in non attainment cities of the state & scheme for compulsory switch over to LPG/CNG as automotive fuel in four cities identified by CPCB.

Following state pollution control boards have submitted action plan. Some of them have been asked to revise the action plan and submit action taken report

S.No

State Pollution Control Board

Cities

1

Karnataka State Pollution Control Board

Bangalore

2

Himachal Pradesh State Pollution Control Board

Shimla, Parwanoo, Damtal

3

West Bengal State Pollution Control Board

Kolkata, Howrah

4

Jharkhand State Pollution Control Board

Dhanbad, Jharia

5

Tamil Nadu State Pollution Control Boards

Chennai

6

Gujarat State Pollution Control Board

Ahemdabad

7

Uttaranchal State Pollution Control Board

Dehradun

8

Rajasthan State Pollution Control Board

Jodhpur

9

Andhra Pradesh State Pollution Control Board

Hyderabad, Secunderabad
Vishakapattanam

10.

Uttar Pradesh State Pollution Control Board

Kanpur

11.

Maharashtra Pollution Control Board

Pune

12.

Chandigarh Pollution Control Committee

Chandigarh

13.

Haryana State Pollution Control Board

Faridabad

14.

Chattisgarh State Pollution Control Board

Bhilai, Korba, Raipur

Ambient Air Quality

As a result of various measures taken to improve ambient air quality in the country, following changes (Table 10.10) has been observed in the ambient air quality during 2002.

Table 10.10 Ambient Air Quality data (µg/m3) in cities with population more than 20 lakhs
(Annual Average of residential Areas)

City

2001

2002

RSPM

NOx

SO2

RSPM

NOx

SO2

Mumbai

81

25

12

66

17

9

Pune

115

87

47

147

84

42

Delhi

120

29

14

140

33

11

Chennai

66

11

7

40

8

6

Bangalore

87

26

11

69

29

11

Hyderabad

77

23

12

59

24

8

Kolkata

102

66

16

113

74

11

Kanpur

202

16

18

194

25

11

Jaipur

134

32

11

103

33

9

Lucknow

173

31

28

170

30

23

Nagpur

83

19

10

81

17

8

 

Committee and Sub- Committees constituted in which CPCB is a member

Following Committees & Sub-Committees have been constituted for vehicular pollution control during 2002-2003

Following Sub- Committees were constituted

Project/ Study undertaken

Estimation of levels of benzene in ambient air and its impact on health in Mumbai

Central Pollution Control Board has conducted a study on "Estimation of levels of Benzene in ambient air and its impact on health in Mumbai" in collaboration with National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI), Mumbai Zonal office, with the objective to form database on benzene concentration in Mumbai city. The concentration of benzene in ambient air of Mumbai has been monitored at thirty-five locations for twenty-four hours (8-hourly) during year 1999-2000. These locations were divided into eleven categories viz. residential, commercial, Industrial, parking area, arterial roads, petrol pumps, traffic intersections etc. The observed concentration ranged from 0.006 ppm to 0.975 ppm. The concentration of benzene in the residential area were varying between 0.006 ppm to 0.975 ppm. While concentration of benzene in industrial area varied between 0.047 to 0.129 ppm. Highest values of benzene in the study were observed at automobile repair garage and petrol pumps. Correlation between the ambient concentration of benzene and cancer death could not be established for want of extensive data. However mortality data indicated increase in number of deaths due to cancer. The concentrations of benzene observed in the present study are indicative and continuous monitoring at least five categories i.e. residential, commercial industrial, petrol pumps and traffic junctions is recommended, as this will help in anticipating future concentration of benzene in ambient air, formulating standard levels and decision pertaining to control air pollution. The report preparation of the above project for publication from CPCB is in progress.

Monitoring and inventory of volatile organic compounds in urban air of Delhi & Mumbai

A project on "Inventory of emission of Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in urban air of Delhi & Mumbai" is being conducted by CPCB through National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI), Mumbai Zonal Office. The objectives of the study are proposed to be achieved in two phase. Phase –I comprises of identification and measurement of VOCs in ambient air of urban areas viz. Delhi and Mumbai. Whereas Phase-II involves inventorisation of sources of VOCs in an industrial estate viz. Thane- Belapur of Mumbai. Draft final report on the study has been already submitted by NEERI.

The interim results of the study reveals following facts :

Study on vehicular emissions inventory & source apportionment for the city of Pune

As per MoU between MoEF & US-EPA a study on vehicular emissions inventory & source apportionment for the city of Pune have been planned.

Vehicular emission inventory

Preliminary meeting of USEPA experts was held in Pune about 15 days before with the representatives of ARAI, Pune, SIAM, CPCB and Pune Municipal Corporation in respect of Vehicular pollution Control. A team from USEPA comprising Dr. Ted Mcdonald and Dr. Lenz visited Pune and carried out the field activities and data collection for emission inventory in Pune during 6-21 March 2003. The team has completed data collection and further action for data analysis and recommendations are awaited from USEPA.

Source Apportionment Studies

USEPA has proposed to organize a training workshop on field study planning to demonstrate the application of source apportionment to urban air pollution control strategy in collaboration with Desert Research Institute.

Emission Load Assessment in Megacities

Pollution load from vehicular sources in mega cities namely Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Kanpur, Hyderabad, Bangalore has been estimated. The emission load at various megacities is presented in Table 10.11.

Table 10.11 Emission Load of Pollutants in Megacities

City

Emission Load of Pollutants in thousand tonnes in 2001.

CO

HC

NOx

PM

Benzene

Butadiene

Delhi

292.51

112.57

62.69

14.3

2.97

0.35

Hyderabad

128.89

72.57

15.11

5.64

2.92

0.1532

Bangalore

118.34

70.59

27.34

6.68

2.95

0.1533

Chennai

88.4

112.57

17.19

4.1

1.89

0.11

Mumbai

109.35

54.17

19.96

5.81

2.15

0.13

Kolkata

44.49

16.14

21.67

4.58

0.73

0.055

 

Impact of ban on diesel buses on air quality in Delhi

A study of short duration was conducted to analyse the impact of banning diesel buses on ambient air at traffic intersection in Delhi from 25.3.02 to 8.5.03. It has been observed that with decrease in the number of on- road diesel buses there was corresponding decrease in the level of RSPM in ambient air of Delhi. Although such short term study does not show meaningful impact, it does give some indications.

10.37 TECHNICAL AND FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE FOR INSTALLATION OF DEMONSTRATIVE ROOFTOP RAINWATER HARVESTING SYSTEMS IN SPCBS

With a view to demonstrate the ease of practicing rooftop rainwater harvesting for management of water resources, the Central Board has initiated a scheme for financing up to Rs. 2.50 lakh for State Pollution Control Boards/ Pollution Control Committees for installation of RWH systems in their own premises. During the financial year, technical and financial assistance for installation of demonstrative rooftop rainwater harvesting systems was provided to the following State Pollution Control Boards:

    1. Assam SPCB – in the premises of their headquarters at Guwahati
    2. Chattisgarh ECB – in Regional Office buildings at Bilaspur and Jagdalpur
    3. UPPCB – in the premises of Regional Office, Kanpur
    4. APPCB – in the premises of upcoming headquarters and laboratory building in Hyderabad
    5. Kerala SPCB – in the premises of their Regional Office, Ernakulam

10.38 DEMONSTRATION OF HOUSEHOLD MSW COMPOSTING UNIT IN PARIVESH BHAWAN

As a part of the Central Board’s effort to demonstrate and promote decentralized MSW management, an aerobic natural composting system to process segregated kitchen wastes and horticultural wastes and to convert into a rich compost has been installed in Parivesh Bhawan. The capacity of the composting unit is 5 kg/day of kitchen wastes with an equal quantity of horticultural wastes, with a total volume of 3700 litres. The unit comprises a top composting chamber and a bottom maturation chamber. Segregated kitchen wastes are fed to the top chamber. Aeration of the heap is aided through the holes made on the walls of the chamber and also by turning of the contents once in a week. The material is transferred to the bottom chamber after a period of 8-10 weeks and allowed to mature for a period of 3-4 weeks. The mature compost is then taken out and placed in a pit under a soil cover for 4 weeks to take care of any pathogenic contamination. The compost produced is utilized within the Parivesh Bhawan premises. The system is user-friendly and will require minimal routine care on the part of households.

The benefits of adoption of household composting can be understood from the following estimate:

- Quantity of waste generated in Delhi : 6000 MT/day (average)

- Organic/ putrescible fraction estimated : 35%

in MSW of Delhi (mostly kitchen wastes)

- Estimated quantity of MSW that can be : 2100 MT/day

composted at household level

- Assuming only 50% of household adopt : 1050 MT/day

composting of kitchen wastes, quantity

of MSW composted

- Quantity of final compost product (at 60%) : 630 MT/day

- Annual value of compost produced : Rs. 56.7 Million/ year

@ Rs.250/ MT of compost

- Savings due to reduction in transportation : Rs. 1.9 Million/ year

(assuming 4 MT/trip, average trip length of

5 Km., and 5 Km/ L of diesel)

Total Economic value of benefits : Rs. 58.6 Million/ year

10.39 INTRODUCTION OF ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION CONTROL

Environmental pollution imposes costs on the society. The costs of the products less often reflect the costs borne by the society (costs of damages to the society or social costs) due to pollution caused by the manufacturing/ consumption of the products. The unaccounted costs are referred by economists as ‘external costs’ or simply ‘externalities’. In the case of pollution, the social costs are negative externalities.

Originally, it had been considered that prescribing effluent/ emission standards and enforcing the same through legislations is the strategy to prevent impacts of pollution and hence the negative externalities. This strategy is referred to as the ‘command-and-control (CAC) strategy’. The measures taken under CAC strategy are essentially a set of ‘dos’ and ‘don’ts’ mandating ‘end-of-pipe’ emission/ discharge standards. With increasing array of issues faced in implementing pollution control laws through regulatory approach, there is a growing interest in the Government to adopt alternative frameworks for pollution abatement and environmental protection.

Economic Instruments (EI) are being considered as a viable option to effectively internalize the negative externalities of pollution and also to implement the ‘polluter pays principle’. In simple language, an economic instrument (EI) is a policy tool, which alters the behaviour of economic agents (firms/industries or households) by changing the nature of economic incentives (or, disincentives) these agents face. In the context of application of EIs to pollution control, these can be further differentiated as direct and indirect instruments. Direct EIs price and charge the economic agents directly based on the quantity of a natural environmental resource used or pollution generated to induce internalization of the external costs of pollution. Indirect EIs, on the other hand, increase (or, decrease) the prices of inputs or outputs or both of a pollution generating activity of economic agents.

Charging an industry based on the concentration or quantity of BOD in the discharged effluent – pollution charges - is a direct EI, whereas, levying a tax on petrol to control vehicular emissions – eco-taxes - is an indirect EI. EIs would not only help to improve environmental quality in an economically efficient manner, but also generate additional revenues that can be used to support activities related to environmental protection.

The Ministry of Environment & Forests (MoEF), Government of India has constituted a Task Force under the Chairmanship of Special Secretary, MoEF to examine the subject of introduction of economic instruments for prevention and control of industrial pollution in India. As a part of this exercise, CPCB has evaluated all the existing environmental legislations and has made the following recommendations to the Task Force:

  1. Nation-wide introduction and implementation of pollution charges/ environment user fees can be done under Water Act, Water Cess Act, and Environment (Protection) Act. However, it will need extensive amendments in these legislations.
  2. From among the existing environmental legislations, Water Cess Act, 1977 is more amenable (than Water Act, 1974 and E(P) Act, 1986) for making amendments for introduction of pollution charges for water pollution control, and hence, this Act can be preferred for these purposes.
  3. However, it is advisable to come out with a new comprehensive legislation exclusively for the purpose of introduction of environment user fees in all spheres of environmental protection/ pollution control.
  4. Before, indulging in a large exercise, Sections 3,6 and 25 of the E(P) Act, 1986 can be used to experiment and evaluate the working of pollution charges through demonstration projects through issue of notifications. Any such notification shall be for a specific period and shall be made applicable for a specified area.
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