6.10 Environmental Status Report of Bhopal City
6.10.1 Noise Pollution
During January, 2000, noise pollution survey was conducted at selected places under five categories – residential, commercial, industrial, institutional and silence zones in Bhopal City.
That the noise levels in Bhopal City is exceeding the limited prescribed at all the monitoring places under the categories residential, commercial and silence zones. Only exception was Govindpura Industrial Area, where recorded noise levels were within the limits, both during the day & night time. Maximum noise level to which the residents in residential locality are exposed during night time was as high as 85.2 dB(A) in Arera Colony. Similarly, in a silence zone, the maximum noise to which the inmates of Hamidia Hospital are exposed was high as 86.6 dB(A) during day time. Among the commercial areas, Berasia Road was found noisy and the people living in surrounding areas are exposed to very high noise upto 101 dB(A) during day time. In the institutional areas also, noise was found high. Noise level at Vallabh Bhawan, State Secretariat was recorded as 86.4 dB(A) in day time.
6.10.2 Status of Vehicular Pollution
Bhopal city, being the capital of Madhya Pradesh has witnessed rapid urban growth both in terms of population and vehicles. As on 31.03.1999, the total registered vehicles in Bhopal were 2,59,171 for a population of 14.00 lakh approximately. In addition to these vehicles, there are 25,652 other vehicles, registered as Govt. vehicles. The vehicular growth has registered annual growth rate of 13.6% during the last eight years and the number of vehicles have nearly doubled from 1,30,317 in 1991 to 2,59,171 in 1999. The highest growth was witnessed in the two wheeler category (109.5%) followed by cars and jeep (87.8%) and passenger vehicles (79.8%).
All along, two wheelers are major constituent of total number of vehicles and currently they occupied 79.4 present share of total vehicles registered. Four wheelers occupy 7.8%, passenger vehicles 5.5% and tractors 3.2%. The percent share of each category of vehicles was found to be declining during the last eight years with only exception of two wheeler category.
During March, 2000, vehicular pollution survey was conducted to assess the status of compliance of various categories of vehicles for smoke and CO in their exhaust emissions. Information on age of the vehicle and average distance travelled by the vehicle was also collected in the survey. Based on the information provided by the vehicle owners and with the help of the WHO emission factors, the total vehicular pollution load emitted in Bhopal city was estimated. For this purpose, it was assumed that 80% of the private registered vehicles and 10% of the Govt. registered vehicles are operating in the city. Vehicle - kilometer traveled by different vehicles in the city has been computed on the basis of information given by the owners.
It is estimated that total vehicular pollution load in Bhopal city is 326.2 MT per day, contributed by both diesel and petrol vehicles in the ratio of 7% and 93% respectively. The diesel vehicles, 13% of total vehicles are responsible for emitting only 7% of total pollution load, while petrol vehicles, 87% of total vehicles contributing 92.92% of total pollution load. Petrol driven vehicles are responsible for emitting large amount of CO, HC & particulate matter whereas NOx and SO2 emissions were largely contributed by the diesel driven vehicles.
Out of total pollution load of 326.2 tonnes per day, the major constituent is CO with the quantity of 215.6 tonnes per day followed by HC 92.1 tonnes per day and NOx 13.6 tones per day. The Light Tonnage Vehicles (LTV), including two wheelers were found contributing 84.4% of total pollution load i.e. 275.2 tones per day. The Heavy Tonnage Vehicles (HTV) are responsible for emitting large quantities of NOx. Ninety percent of SO2 emissions were found due to HTV & MTV.
During the survey, it was observed that 22.3% of petrol driven vehicles and 73.8% of diesel driven vehicles were not complying with the prescribed limits. Among the petrol driven vehicles, four wheelers were found as major violators. It was observed that mini-buses, three wheeler tempos and trucks were maintained poorly and as a result, were emitting higher quantities of pollutants.
The older the vehicle in petrol category, the higher the emission of CO. In diesel vehicles the emissions of smoke were found high even after one year.
6.10.3 Ground Water Quality in Bhopal City
a) Bhopal city was surveyed for the ground water quality during March 06-07, 2000. The ground water was found to be hard in most of the locations indicating natural hydrogeological features of Bhopal city.
b) In an indicative survey, twenty locations spread all over the city were selected for collection of ground water samples. One time samples were collected from all locations and analysed at Zonal Office laboratory for seventeen parameters relevant for domestic use including drinking.
c) At the following eleven locations, the ground water quality was found satisfactory with respect to the studied parameters for domestic use including drinking.
Ø By pass road - village Mohali
Ø Nishatpura - Kalyan Nagar
Ø New Arif Nagar
Ø Arera Colony-E-1 - Sarguja House
Ø Shahpura - Sector 'C'
Ø T.T. Nagar - Police Station
Ø Professor Colony
Ø Hamidia Road - Shahjahanabad
Ø Bharkheda - Nehru Market
d) Total coliform were found in almost all places except two locations, E-1 Arera Colony & Ahmedabad. Faecal coliform was detected at Panchsheel Nagar and Narela Shankari. Presence of faecal coliform in these two locations indicate ground water contamination by sewage.
e) The ground water at the following location in the city was found not suitable for drinking and other domestic purposes, with regard to the parameters mentioned against each location.
6.11 Environmental Assessment : Bangalore
6.11.1 Monitoring of Respirable Particulate Matter in Bangalore
The South Zone Office initiated a project called “Monitoring of Respirable Particulate Matter in Bangalore” during 1998-99 and it was continued during 1999 - 2000 in Bangalore. Under the project, monthly monitoring was carried out for five commercial centers of Bangalore city viz.: South End circle, Richmond Circle,, Corporation Circle,, Sadashiv Nagar and West of Chord Road besides a residential area at Kamala Nagar and a control station in the farm house of Gandhi Krishi Vidya Kendra (GKVK., Hebbal) during day time. The monitoring was carried out to study the level of Pollutants namely SPM, RSPM, Ambient Lead, SO2 and NOx.
In general, the total suspended particulate matter concentration exceeded the limit at all the places. Corporation Circle showed the highest value (1000 mg/m3) followed by Richmond Circle, South End Circle, West of Chord Road and Sadashiva Nagar. In the residential area (Kamala Nagar), the value was just above the limiting Standard while at the control station it was almost at par with the standards recommended for sensitive area.
The Concentration of respirable suspended particulate matter (PM-10) exceeded the limit at all the commercial areas. At Kamala Nagar average PM-10 was 57.7 mg/m3 and at control station this was as low as 22 mg/m3.
The SO2 concentration at all commercial areas are within the limit of 60 mg/m3, except at West of Chord Road where it is 67 mg/m3. The NOx values also stood above the limit for South End Circle and Richmond Circle. The value at control station is in the expected line. As the project is an ongoing one, no conclusions and recommendation are made.
6.11.2 Noise level monitoring during Deepawali festival in Bangalore City
A study was carried out by Central Pollution Control Board, to assess the levels of noise and ambient air quality during Deepawali festival in Bangalore.
Compared to previous years, the cracker bursting was much less this year which may be due to increased cost of living, awareness among citizens, directions issued by various regulatory authorities and /or efforts made by NGOs and other organisations. During the festival period, highest level of noise was found at Sarakki on 09th November, 1999 (Leq of 110 dB(A) ) and a minimum Leq of 58 dB(A) at Kamalanagar on 08th November, 1999.
Due to strict implementation of law and order by the State Government, the bursting of crackers like Diwali bombs, sputnicks, explosives containing potassium chlorate and potassium per chlorate which pose health hazard were found less.The cracker bursting was almost negligible beyond 11.00 PM. The eight hour Leq values varied between 70.5 dB(A) at Banashankari on 8-11-1999 to 76.5 dB(A) at Vijayanagar and Chamrajpet on 06th and 09th November, 1999 respectively.
The ambient air quality monitoring results indicates that the RSPM and SPM exceeded at all locations except at GKVK station which was a control station.
Although Corporation Circle indicated highest Total Suspended Particulate Matter (TSPM) of 714 micrograms/cubic meter, yet the particle size less than 10 microns in size were highest at West of Chord Road (i.e. 226 microgram/cubic meter), where dense heavy vehicles movement is quite common. Particles less than 10 microns i.e. RSPM are easily inhaled by common man and reach the respiratory system. The effect of fire works is clearly seen in the form of high levels of NOx when compared with SO2 levels. Richmond Circle exhibited highest levels (100 microgram/cubic meter) of the NOx in the ambient air.
6.11.3 Water Quality of Lakes in Bangalore
Around 30 years ago, in Bangalore, there were about 262 lakes which subsequently reduced to 81. As reported, these lakes were created for drinking, bathing, agricultural, recreational and fishing purposes as there was no river which flows throughout the year.
Due to its undulating topography, although it rains heavily (870 mm over a period of nearly 8 months in a year), the rain water is not available for various uses. It is this reason that the protection of existing lakes and their water quality is of utmost importance. Therefore, the rain waters are stored in lakes and ground water aquifers are allowed to constantly recharged. South Zonal Office, CPCB, Bangalore, has been regularly (on monthly basis) monitoring the water quality of Ulsoor, Madiwala and Sankey tanks respectively right since 1997 and it is an ongoing activity.
Madiwala lake area is 114.3 hectare, shore line is 5.84 k.m., depth is 4.5m, breadth is 0.7km and length is 1.8 k.m. Karnataka State Forest Department carries out the routine maintenance of this lake. Children park and boating facility are available. Madiwala lake receives sewage and storm water from surroundings localities. Monthly samples at five locations were collected between July'97 to Feb'99.The monitoring had to be discontinued as the lake is being cleaned and the construction of sewage treatment plant at the site is in progress.
The samples were analysed for pH, Conductivity, Alkalinity, COD,BOD, T.S.S. TDS, Sulphate, Chloride, D.O. Boron, Ammonical Nitrogen, Phosphate, Nitrate, Nitritenitrogen, Sodium, Total Hardness, Calcium, Magnecium, and Chlorophyll. The analysis towards heavy metals presence both in water and sludge samples was also performed on one sample for the parameters such as Pb, Hg, Cr, Cu, Zn.
Sanky Tank, measuring an area of 10 hectare, was built by Col. Sanky of the Madras Sappers and Miners in the year 1897 as a drinking water source, as the tank receives only storm water from nearby areas like I.I.Sc., Central Power Research Institute and few estates. This lake is routinely maintained by Karnataka Tourism Development Corporation and boating facilities for tourists is also extended. On an average, the depth of water in the lake varies between 2 and 6 m. At the bottom, there are sludge deposits measuring approximately 1 m. deep. Ganesha festival idols that are usually immersed into the lake, is the only source of pollution that too occurs only once in a year. The samples collected on monthly basis from July'97 to March'2000 at three locations, analysed for parameters described above, are shown in table-6. Two times water & sludge samples analysed for heavy metals such as Pb,Hg,Cr,Cu,Zn are given in table-7 and 8 respectively.
Madiwala lake appears to be grossly polluted by sewage indicating high levels of Phosphate and Nitrogen content. Due to high content of Phosphate and Nitrogen, the algal growth in the lake is also high which is reflected from its Chlorophyll content. Although heavy metal presence in water samples was not significantly high yet the sludge samples indicated higher concentrations of heavy metals. Contrary to Madiwala lake, the Sanky tank is only moderately polluted which is clear from its low phosphate content and low algal growth.