CHAPTER 14

OTHER IMPORTANT ACTIVITIES DEALT BY CPCB

14.1 HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT

Guidelines for Environmentally Sound Technology for Recycling of Hazardous Wastes

According to Hazardous Waste (Management & Handling) Rules, 1989 as amended, it is mandatory that the recyclers of hazardous wastes like used oil, waste oil and non-ferrous metal wastes to get registered with the Central Pollution Control Board as referred under Schedule 4 of the said Rules as per the procedure laid down under Rule 19 of the said Rules. Accordingly, 184 recyclers involving recycling of the said hazardous wastes with environmentally sound management facilities have been registered with the Central Board. Also, in order to assess the facilities for recycling of hazardous wastes in the light of the HW (M & H) Amendment Rules, 2003 by the regulatory authority, Central Pollution Control Board prepared and finalized the "Guidelines for Environmentally Sound Technology for Recycling of Hazardous Wastes". These guidelines have been finalized in consultation with the expert members & CSIR laboratories and the industry associations.

Follow-up action taken to avail the benefit of MoEF notifications by the Used Oil re-refining units having acid clay process or modified acid clay process

The Hazardous Waste (M & H) Rules, 2003 notified on May 20, 2003 required that all registered re-refiners of used oil to adopt one of the Environmentally Sound Technology (ESTs) within six months from the date of commencement of the said Rules. The technologies specified under Rule 21 (1) of these rules for the environmentally sound re-refining of used oil are:

      • Vacuum Distillation with Clay Treatment
      • Vacuum distillation with Hydro Treatment
      • Thin Film Evaporation Process
      • Any other Technology Approved by the MoEF

The registered re-refining units with acid clay process could not get renewal of registration as the units could not switch over to the specified ESTs, which resulted into reduction of the registered re-refining units from about 100 to very few units. In view of the accumulation of used oil in the country and the representation made by the re-refining industry, Ministry of Environment & Forests (MoEF), Government of India has issued notifications dated July 19, 2004 and August 06, 2004 permitting the use of acid clay process or modified acid clay process for re-refining of used oil till December 31, 2004 to such units which placed orders and submitted their copies along with Bank Guarantee of Rs. 5 lakh each to CPCB by August 15, 2004. So as to avail the benefit of the said MoEF notifications, about 30 units submitted a Bank Guarantee along with the copy of the orders placed for plant & machinery for installation of EST, to Central Board, as per the provisions of the HW (M & H) Rules. After examining, 27 units were given permission for continuing their re-refining activities and for complete installation of the EST for re-refining of used oil by December 31, 2004. Out of 27 units, 09 units could not complete installation of EST by December 31, 2004 and hence the Bank Guarantee submitted by these units has been forfeited.

Units invited for hearing and follow-up action taken, as per HW (M & H) Amendment Rules, 2003

50 units pertaining have called for hearing under Rule 19 (7) of the Hazardous Waste (M & H) Amendment Rules, 2003 for refusal/processing for grant of registration and follow-up action has been taken as per the decision taken in the hearing.

Cancellation of Registration granted to the Registered Recyclers or Re-processors

The registration granted to 04 units involved in re-refining of used oil using acid clay process or modified acid clay process, after re-confirming non-installation of EST /violation of HW Rules have been cancelled.

Clarification with regard to the HW (M & H) Rules, 1989 and as amended

About 50 clarifications concerning the Hazardous Waste (M & H) Rules, 1989 and as amended has been given to the State Pollution Control Boards/Pollution control Committees/ Industries and other agencies.

Status of registration applications and placing in Web Site

Also, in order to know the status on the registration applications submitted for obtaining registration from the Central Board by the units involved in recycling of hazardous wastes, the information has been prepared and placed at CPCB’s web site for the purpose of the public reference or for the reference of the concerned units.

Registration committee meetings and finalization of the minutes and follow-up action

Organized Registration Committee meetings for consideration of the applications of the recycling units and follow-up action taken as per the decisions taken in the said meetings.

Inventory of Hazardous Waste generation as per Hazardous Waste (Management & Handling) Amendment Rules, 2003, as reported by the SPCBs/PCCs to CPCB

As per the directions of Hon’ble Supreme Court dated October 14, 2003 in the matter of Writ Petition (Civil) No. 657 of 1995, all the State Pollution Control Boards and Pollution Control Committees are required to carryout inventory on Hazardous Waste generation and HW generating industries in the light of Hazardous Waste (M & H) Rules, 1989 as amended. To have uniformity in submission of the inventory reports, Central Pollution Control Board prepared a format and circulated to all the SPCBs/PCCs, Central Pollution Control Board has received inventory reports from 22 SPCBs and 04 PCCs ie., States of Kerala, Assam, Chattisgarh, Gujarat, Jharkhand, Rajasthan, Uttaranchal, Bihar, Nagaland, Meghalaya, Haryana, Karnataka, Punjab, Mizoram, Tripura (without complete details), Tamilnadu, Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh and Orissa and Ut’s of Chandigarh, Daman, Diu, Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Lakshadweep and Pondicherry.

As per the directions of the Hon’ble Supreme Court, CPCB has to carryout random checks of inventory submitted by SPCBs/PCCs to CPCB. So far, random checks with respect to States of Chattisgarh, Rajasthan, Uttaranchal, Bihar, Kerala, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Meghalaya, Gujarat, Haryana, and UTs of Chandigarh, Daman, Diu and Dadar &, Nagar Haveli, Pondicherry have been completed by the concerned Zonal Offices of the Central Pollution Control Board. The random checks with respect to other States/UTs under progress.

Status on Inventory of Hazardous Waste (HW) dump sites as reported by the SPCBs/PCCs

As per the directives of Hon’ble Supreme Court, SPCBs/PCCs are required to carryout inventory on HW dumpsites and make assessment with regard to the extent of soil or ground water contamination in & around such dump sites and to prepare and submit the rehabilitation plans The State Boards of Haryana, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Mizoram, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar,Jharkhand, Goa, Kerala, Uttaranchal and Pollution Control Committees of Pondicherry, Delhi, Daman & Diu, Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Chandigarh have reported that there are no illegal HW dump sites in their respective States/UTs. Based on the information receivedfrom various SPCBs/PCCs, the state-wise HW dump sites are as follows:

State

Dump sites

Karnataka

18

Punjab

14

Uttar Pradesh

10

Rajasthan

01

Tamil Nadu

02

Andhra Pradesh

42

Maharashtra in MIDC Area)

10

Orissa

07

Gujarat

06

Assam

05

Most of the SPCBs/PCCs are yet to submit reports on detailed scientific studies and the re-habilitation programmes to the Central Board. The reports on dumpsites have been received from the states of Assam and Orissa. Random check in the state of Orissa has been completed.

Random checks of the inventory of Hazardous Waste generating units – North Region

Large numbers of Hazardous waste generating units are operating in India comprising of different categories generating different types of hazardous waste. Indiscriminate disposal of this type of waste is posing great threat to the environment. Government of India had notified the Hazardous waste (Management and Handling) Rules long back in 1989 and its amendments in year 2003, but due to lack of awareness and will power compliance of these rules was observed to be very poor.

Hon’ble Supreme court of India issued the directives in the matter of writ petition no 657 of 1995 regarding management of Hazardous waste in the country for estimation of hazardous waste being generated in different state to respective SPCB and CPCB is required to carry out random check in respect of inventories of Hazardous waste units. The Central Pollution Control Board has conducted extensive survey and study in North region to check the inventory of hazardous waste generating units submitted by the SPCB for UP, Uttranchal and Chandigarh, . The details are as below:

Uttar Pradesh

Status of hazardous waste generating units as submitted by UPPCB is presented in Table 14.1.

Table 14.1 Status of Hazardous Waste Generating Units in Uttar Pradesh

a.

Total no. of hazardous waste generating units

1633 (281) Closed

(192) have no authorization

b.

Total Hazardous Waste Generation in the State (Tonnes per Annum)

83076.62

c.

Hazardous Waste authorizations

i) Applications received

-

 

ii) Authorization granted by SPCB.

1160

d.

No. of Industries taken up for random verifications

54

 

Industries (54 no) selected for random check were selected as to represent entire state geographically. Also emphasis was given to select different type of industries to include all type of hazardous waste industries to assess the hazardous waste management practices. Description of industries covered under each category is summarized below

Table 14.2 : Process wise description of industries covered under various category

S. No.

Process

Category as per Schedule I

No of units inspected

1

Petrochemical Process and pyrolytic operations

1

1

2

Petroleum refining/re-refining of used oil/recycling of waste oil

4

4

3

Secondary production and/or use of zinc

6

1

4

Primary production of zinc/lead/copper and other non-ferrous metals except aluminium

7

1

5

Secondary production of lead

9

1

6

Production of primary and secondary aluminium

11

1

7

Metal surface treatment, such as etching, staining, polishing, galvanizing, cleaning, degreasing, plating etc.

12

7

8

Production of iron steel including other ferrous alloys (electric furnaces:steel rolling and finishing mills; Coke oven and by product plant)

13

2

9

Production of asbestos or asbestos containing materials.

15

1

10

Production of caustic soda and chlorine

16

1

11

Production of acids

17

2

12

Production of nitrogenous and complex fertilizers

18

2

13

Production and/or industrial use of solvents

20

1

14

Production and/or industrial use of paints, pigments, lacquers, varnishes, plastics and inks

21

3

15

Production of canvas and textiles

24

1

16

Production of industrial use of synthetic dyes, dye-intermediates and pigments

26

4

17

Production/formulation of durgs/pharmaceuticals

28

2

18

Production, use and formulation of pesticides including stock-piles

29

5

19

Leather tanneries

30

5

20

Electronic Industry

31

2

21

Pulp & Paper Industry

32

1

22

Purification processes for air and water

34

1

23

Purification process for organic compounds/solvents

35

1

24

Others

 

4

Total

 

54

While estimating the waste, an exhaustive scrutiny of process flow was made along with study of process units, conveyance of waste stream, mechanism of waste handling, scrutiny of records made available by the industry and interaction with the concerned industry representatives. For interpretation Schedule-I and II of the Notification (Dated 20th May 2003) of Hazardous Waste (Management and Handling) Amendment Rules, 2003 was considered as the Nodal Reference.

While undertaking random inventory a reference was made to the data provided by / available with UPPCB. The salient observations as emerged during the survey are

      • While identifying the waste category with reference to the Schedule-I, there have been quite a few waste category, which were not included / considered in the Authorization. Such waste categories are however mentioned in the summary sheet as well as the individual industry format.
      • Lot of variation in waste quantity was observed. In most of the cases waste quantity was assessed on much higher side. In some cases it is under estimated.
      • Uttar Pradesh is not having any scientific waste disposal site due to this every industry is keeping its waste within the factory premises. Every industry has pilled up lot of hazardous waste and facing the problem of storage in future.
      • Couple of industries observed having installed incinerator for hazardous waste generated. Efficiency of incinerator is required to be checked.
      • Many of the industries have installed the display board giving information of hazardous waste being generated.
      • Considering efforts on waste recycling / minimization made by the individual industries, there has been a general observation that waste generation has been significantly reduced barring a few industries wherein significant increase was observed. There has been a general casual approach towards Hazardous Waste Management barring certain units.
      • SPCB inventory doesn’t reflect all the hazardous waste categories as mentioned in rules.
      • In Rania area of Kanpur Dehat, many industries (Basic Chrome Sulfate units) are running without consent and hazardous waste authorization from concerned State Pollution Control Board. These units have disposed off their chrome bearing furnace sludge outside the factory premises.
      • In some of the industries Effluent treatment Plant and Air Pollution Control Systems are not adequate to arrest the pollutants, thus generating less quantity of waste.
      • Almost all the industries that have ETP generate ETP sludge and also waste oil from their plant and machinery.

Chandigarh

In order to have random verification eleven industries were taken up for inspection of HW dumpsites and rehabilitation plans submitted by Chandigarh Pollution Control Board. In addition to the inspection, detailed discussions were made with the concerned departments. The salient observations are as follows-

    • The list / inventory of the hazardous wastes generating industries is not complete and needs revision.
    • The industry-wise quantities of hazardous waste generated as estimated does not appear to be in order because the list prepared / inventory is not complete and also in a few cases , some of the wastes are not included in the estimation. However in case of Zinc Ash processing industries and waste lead acid battery processing industries, the estimation appear to be in order.
    • The HWM practices adopted by the industries are not up-to mark and in many cases, these are highly objectionable.
    • Almost all the industries especially small and medium scale are selling their exhausted / spent acids to those dealers / industries which do not have proper infrastructure for reprocessing the HW and also the Registration as actual user of HW / Authorization from CPCB / CPCC as the case may be.
    • Most of the small-scale industries and many of large, are not taking proper care for the treatment /storage and disposal of the HW.
    • In almost all the cases, there is no mention about the treatment & disposal of barrels, containers used for handling of hazardous wastes /chemicals (category No. 33, schedule 1)

Inspection Under Hazardous Waste Verification – North Eastern States

Correspondence made with the North East State Pollution Control Boards for inventory of Hazardous Waste generating industries. The following industries have been visited under Hazardous Waste Management.

    • M/s Taparia Industries, Guwahati,
    • M/s Assam Roofing Pvt. Ltd., Guwahati,
    • M/s Hindustan Coca-cola beverages, Jorhat,
    • M/s OIL-pumping stations -3 Nos. at Jorhat,
    • M/s HPC-Jagiroad,
    • M/s Modern Lube Industries at Kalapahar,
    • M/s Subhash Industries,
    • Oil drill sites at ONGCL at Rudrasagar, GGS-I & II at Lakwa and ETP at Lakwa,
    • M/s IOC-Guwahati,
    • M/s IOC-Digboi,
    • M/s HPC-Numaligarh,
    • M/s BVFCL-Namrup,
    • M/s BRPL-Bongaigaon,
    • M/s HPC-Panchgram,

The random check of the data submitted by State Boards was also undertaken with respect to Hazardous generation by 17 categories of industries. Few recyclers have been visited to comply for registration with CPCB under Hazardous Waste Management system. The recyclers industries are M/s Matiz Metal Pvt. Ltd., M/s Modern Lube Industries, M/s Taparia Industries, M/s East India Petrochemical (P) Ltd., Naoholia & M/s Subhash Industries.

Central Region

As per the directions of Hon’ble Supreme Court of India dated 14.10.2003 Writ petition (c) No.657 of 1995, industries were visited for random checking of Hazardous wastes generation. The general observations during random cross check in the inventory are as below:

Rajasthan

  • Facilities for analysis of hazardous waste are not available at most of the places, which made the categorization difficult. Before the amendment of the Rules, many of the industries were allowed to provide secured landfill (SLF) within their factory compound. Most of these, SLFs are neither made nor operated as per the provisions of the Rules. Continuation of such SLFs may be reconsidered.

  • Although the discarded containers and a few categories of hazardous waste need to be decontaminated and detoxified before disposal as per one of the conditions of the authorization issued by the State Board, but the process of decontamination and detoxification is neither prescribed in Rules nor practiced by any industry.

  • Display boards were seen installed at most of the industries. However, some of the small-scale industries have been dismounting these boards and keeping them inside the factory at the close of the day in the evening to avoid theft / damage.

  • There was a standard format circulated by SPCB to all the industries for providing the information on display boards. Many display boards were having information, written in very small letters, readable only from a close distance.

  • At some of the display boards, the quantity of the hazardous waste and hazardous chemicals have been written with paint and not changed. In other cases, the quantity although changed, but written with "chalk" and not legible.

  • The State Pollution Control Board had issued large number of authorizations before the amendment of Rules. These authorizations are still valid for five years or so. Such authorizations did neither indicate the category of waste nor its quantity. SPCB has not asked such industries to get a new authorization under the amended Rules nor the industries are aware of the provisions in amended Rules.

  • As stated in the amended Rules, 2003 in sub-rule 9 of Rule 5, the State Boards should maintain a register specifying the conditions imposed on industries through authorization for any disposal of hazardous waste on any land or premises.

  • Presently, there is no TSDF in the State of Rajasthan. However, one site has been notified in Udaipur, which is at initial stage and public hearing is yet to be conducted for this TSDF.

  • In the meantime, various industrial associations like in Bhilwara, Udaipur have obtained NOC from Gujarat Pollution Control Board for disposal of hazardous waste generated in their industries in Rajasthan, to the SLF developed at Naroda, Ahmedabad. Hazardous waste generated by such industries is transported through the industrial associations. Presently, the operator of SLF at Naroda has expressed inability to accept hazardous waste from the industries of Rajasthan for next two months i.e. till September 30, due to rainy season and most of such industries have been storing hazardous waste in the storage provided within the industry premises.

  • Some of the industries generate by-products, which qualify as hazardous waste as per the criteria given in the Rules. The industries have not included such substances as hazardous waste stating these substances as by-products. These by-products are sold to different industries, where these are used as raw material. It is not clear whether the industry has to obtain an authorization for sale / disposal of such substances which they sell as by-product.

Madhya Pradesh

MPPCB submitted inventory report of hazardous waste generating units in Madhya Pradesh and these units were visited to cross check the inventory. The following are the observations:

  • The document of inventorization has provided three sets of industries. Those issued authorization as per the Hazardous Waste Handling Rules, 1989, as per Rules amended in 2000 and as per Rules amended in 2003. It would have been easier for compilation and understanding, had all the authorization issued to the industries been converted as per Rules amended in 2003.

  • All the authorizations were issued by the Head Office, MPPCB, Bhopal. From December, 2004 onwards, the power to issue authorization in respect of SSI units were delegated to Regional Officers. A number of authorizations have been issued by Regional Officers, which are not included in the present inventory. Few large and medium scale industries were not included. The inventory needed updating for effectively exercising the cross random check.

  • A few industries, although issued authorization and stated as producing / handling more than 10,000 tonnes of waste per annum, the industry was yet to take shape on ground. M/s. Rose Chemicals (at sl.no.65 of inventory) is one of the examples. M/s. S.W. Processor Pvt. Ltd., is another example although not included in the inventory but issued authorization by Regional Office, Indore-II. It is not understood as to why the industries were issued authorization and their wastes included in the inventory w3hen their existed no such industry. To quote another instance, one SSI unit involved in formulating pesticides was show generating 201.8 TPA of hazardous waste, while the only waste generated by the unit was around thirty empty containers.

  • Baring few exceptions, no industry has provided captive secured landfill site. The hazardous waste presently stored in the industries accounted for only last two-three years. It is evident that the industry was dumping their hazardous waste somewhere illegally. During the inspection, such illegal dumpsites were noticed specially in Pithampur. Some channels in the industrial area were containing spent acid illegally disposed by the industries. The operation of all the industries purchasing spent acid is as raw material may be scrutinized for their actual utilization in the process. It is doubted that the arrangements of selling raw acid and purchasing of spent acid is an arrangement made by the industries to show the disposal of spent acid.

  • Hundreds of tonnes of hazardous waste lying within and around the Union Carbide Ltd., has not been reflected anywhere in the inventory. Thousands of tonnes of hazardous waste dumped at Ratlam by H-acid producing and other such units has not been reflected in the inventory, either.

  • The inventory has been prepared without ground verification of hazardous waste generated by the industries. But quote a few M/s.Bridgestone India Ltd., stopped their operation of incinerator since 1999. The application submitted in November, 2003 sought authorization for handling incinerated ash.

  • The concept of industrial operations generating hazardous waste was not well understood. In many cases, hazardous waste has not been classified for the category it belonged to.

  • In one of the cases, MPPCB issued authorization to M/s.IPCA Laboratories Ltd., for incinerating the hazardous waste produced in its sister concern, located in Maharashtra. Quantity of such hazardous waste coming from other State for disposal into individual industry has not been taken into account in the present inventory.

  • Generally, empty containers have not been taken into account in most of the industries. At the same time, M/s. Matsushita Lakhanpal Battery India Ltd., at Pithampur has been shown producing more than 29 lakh containers every year. These are not the container but the rejected pencil batteries and weighed around 52 MT only.

  • As per the inventory, M/s. Hindustan Copper Ltd., Jabalpur produce 1,25,200 tonne of hazardous waste per day as per Hazardous Waste Management Handling Rules, 1989 (Pre-amended). The category of hazardous waste as per Schedule-I has been described as production of asbestos or asbestos containing materials or products. The entire waste disposed in tailing dam has been taken as hazardous waste, which is nowhere, described as hazardous waste in Schedule-I in the processes shown at serial 7 & 8. Actual solid waste dumped into tailing dam worked out to around 6260 MT per day as against 1,25,200 tonne per day taken in the inventory.

Registration of Recyclers

The following units were visited for verification of application for registration as actual users:

S. No.

Unit

Type of unit

1

M/s Golchha Chemicals, Bhillai

Used oil/waste oil

2

M/s Alcobex Metals Ltd, Udaipur

Zinc reprocessor

3

M/s Anna Petrochem Pvt Ltd, Abu Road

Waste Oil

4

M/s Barium International Kota

Metal reprocessor

5

M/s Ashish Pigments & Alloys, Bhiwadi

Lead reprocessing

6

M/s Vipul Metals, Bhiwadi

Lead reprocessing

7

M/s Shriyansh Industries, Bhillai

Lead reprocessing

8

M/s Rohan Metals Pvt ltd, Bhiwadi

Lead reprocessing

9

M/s Sumetco Alloys Pvt Ltd, Bhiwadi

Lead reprocessing

10

M/s M.S.Metals , Indore

Lead reprocessing

11

M/s Ganpati metals, Indore

Lead reprocessing

12

M/s Manoj Industries, Indore

Lead reprocessing

13

M/s Ajmer Lead Refinery, Ajmer

Lead reprocessing

14

M/s Balaji Metal works, Ajmer

Lead reprocessing

15

M/s Asawa Industries, Ajmer

Lead reprocessing

16

M/s Universal petrochemicals, Vidisha

Used oil

17

M/s Rahul Metals, Alwar

Lead reprocessing

18

M/s BMA Zinc Private Ltd, Bhiwadi

Lead /Zinc reprocessing

19

M/s Siyarco Industries, Jodhpur

Lead /Zinc reprocessing

20

M/s Vipul Oil, Raipur

Used Oil

21

M/s Continental Petrochemicals, Behrod

Used Oil

22

M/s Indomax Chemicals, Jaipur

Used Oil

North Eastern Region

The following industries have been visited to ensure implementation of Hazardous Waste Management Rules:

  • M/s Taparia Industries, Guwahati
  • M/s Assam Roofings Pvt. Ltd., Guwahati
  • M/s Hindustan Coca-cola Beverages, Jorhat
  • M/s OIL-Pumping Station-3 at Jorhat
  • M/s HPC Jagiroad
  • M/s Modern Lube Industries, Kalapahar
  • M/s Subhash Industries, Oil drill sites at ONGCL at Rudrasagar, GGS-I & II at Lakwa and ETP at Lakwa
  • M/s IOC, Guwahati
  • M/s IOC, Digboi
  • M/s NRL, Panchgram

Random check of the data submitted by State Boards with respect to Hazardous generation by 17 categories of industries has also undertaken. The following recyclers have been visited to bring under Hazardous Waste Management System and initiate registration.

  • M/s Matiz Metal Pvt. Ltd
  • M/s Modern Lube Industries
  • M/s Taparia, Industries
  • M/s East India Petrochemical (P) Ltd., Naoholia
  • M/s Subhash Industries.

Western Region

Gujarat State

In Gujarat State, total 54 units were inspected on random basis covering prominent categories like Pharmaceuticals, Dyestuff, Pesticides, and some other categories, in major potential industrial areas such as Ahmedabad, Vadodara, Ankleshwar, and Vapi, etc. The data on Hazardous waste generation submitted by State Pollution Control Board, by and large, matches with the data verified physically. However, at times, the verified data have differed on account of various reasons, like some additional sources of waste generation, change of product range, process change (including incorporation of material recovery etc), basis of calculation of waste on average production or installed capacity). Also, a wide variation was observed in the practices adopted for the hazardous waste treatment and/or disposal in some units. The practices for on-site storage, also, were found varying with some units having proper facilities with proper segregation, whereas some other were not following proper on-site segregation of the waste.

Daman & Silvassa

The production facility, waste management facilities were visited in the region and interacted with the industry personnel for necessary information about the hazardous waste generation. The assessment of hazardous waste generation was made on the basis of discussions and Industry-wise information has been compiled in form of report.

The present scenario of hazardous wastes generation, handling, storage and disposal in Union Territory of Daman, Dadra & Nagar Haveli is not scientific and satisfactory. The industries are required to be made aware about the issues related to Hazardous Wastes Management. There is an urgent need of secured common landfill site and common incineration facility in Union Territory of Daman, Dadra & Nagar Haveli for disposal of hazardous wastes. The Union Territory also require analytical facility to know the characteristics of the hazardous wastes generated so that scientific mode of handling and disposal can be worked out.

Registration under Actual Users

52 actual users/ recyclers/ re-processors in Gujarat, Maharashtra and UTs of Daman and Dadra & NH have been visited and report with recommendations prepared and submitted.

Registration Certificate cum Pass Book for Re-refining/Recycling of Hazardous Wastes

As per the responsibility of the waste generator laid down under Rule 20 of the Hazardous Waste (M & H) Amendment Rules, 2003, the generators of hazardous wastes are required to sell or auction the recyclable wastes like used oil /waste oil and non-ferrous metal wastes referred under Schedule 4 of the said Rules, only to the recyclers registered with Central Pollution Control Board. It has been observed that number of registered recyclers procure hazardous wastes in excess of the quantities actually permitted for procurement as well as the reprocessing of the raw material and even sell such wastes without any processing. Even there are reports/complaints concerning use of photocopies of the registration certificate by non- registered units for procurement of the recyclable wastes.

In order to avoid such illegal practices of Registration and for effective implementation of the amended HW (M & H) Rules, 1989, the Central Pollution Control Board has introduced ‘Registration Certificate cum Pass Book for Re-refining/Recycling of Hazardous Wastes’ in place of the Registration Letter. The ‘Registration Certificate cum Pass Book’ has been prepared and finalized after considering the views received from the members of the Registration Committee constituted for the purpose of consideration and grant of registration for recycling of hazardous wastes.

Cost Benefit Analysis for Changeover from Mercury Cell Technology to Membrane Cell Technology in Chlor-Alkali Plants.

This project was initiated in order to assess the economic aspects for change-over to membrane cell technology. Under this project, several industries were inspected in different geographical reasons and based on the salt price, energy cost, selling price of product, electricity consumptions and investment from internal and external sources, Internal Rate of Returns (IRR) has been estimated for different scenarios.

In an ideal case, IRR found to be reasonably attractive suggested that the industry can go for conversion. However, the actual scenario is different in many cases i.e. in terms of reduce capacity utilisation, inability of the units to reduce man-power cost, fluctuation of products selling price, low electricity tariff, etc. These factors can make the returns from investment less attractive. Therefore, to speed-up the conversion of mercury cell to membrane cell following incentives have been recommended.:

  • 100% depreciation benefits for the capital goods for plants converting to membrane cell may be provided. This 100% depreciation benefit may also be extended to units which are fully converted to membrane cell technology after implementation date (i.e. after March 2003) of CREP recommendations.

  • An assistance of minimum 5% interest reimbursement may be provided in order to facilitate the units to speed-up conversion (This scheme is on similar lines to the scheme of Govt. of India for Textile & Jute industries under Technology Upgradation Fund).

  • The above benefits may be made available to plants for a period of five years.

14.2 BIO-MEDICAL WASTE MANAGEMENT

Development of Guidelines for Disposal of Bio-Medical Waste Generated During Universal Immunisation Programme (UIP)

UIP in India is one of the largest health programmes in the world for giving vaccinations (such as DPT, BCG, TT, OPV etc.) to children and women. All vaccines except OPV are given by injection. The programme includes administration of about 200 million injections each year covering about 5.5 lakhs sites in the various urban as well as rural parts including remote/outreach locations of India. The vaccination practice of the UIP so far involved use of either glass or disposable syringes. It has been decided by the Govt. of India that Auto Disable (AD) syringes would be introduced instead of glass or disposable syringe to minimize the risk of reuse of syringes that might transmit infections. Although the introduction of AD syringes would check the possibility of reuse, it would also generate relatively large quantity of bio-medical waste during the immunization programme. Such waste generated in urban areas may conveniently be imparted necessary treatment using existing infrastructure for treatment of bio-medical waste but imparting necessary treatment/disposal to these waste generated at outreach points is a matter of concern.

The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) has, therefore, prepared guidelines for disposal of bio-medical wastes expected to be generated under UIP. The development of guidelines involved two case studies conducted in the district of Bulandshahar (Uttar Pradesh) and Alwar (Rajasthan) for a broad understanding of the immmunisation system under the UIP and a review of treatment requirements for the bio-medical waste involved in the UIP vis-à-vis the permitted treatment/ disposal options at the various location and the outreach points. These guidelines have also been forwarded to Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Govt. of India.

Bio-medical Waste Management at North Region

In order to treat biomedical waste generated from various health care establishments, common waste treatment facilities have been set-up in various cities.The status of common Biomedical Waste Management facilities in zorth zone are Uttar Pradesh 12 facilities, Punjab 3 facilities, Himachal Pradesh two facilities, Haryana seven facilities.

Information about various common facilities have been collected. Apart from this inspection of common facility at Allahabad and two incinerators of Kanpur was also undertaken. The status is as below:

    • Incinerators in present condition are not suitable for treatment and disposal of bio-medical waste as required under bio-medical rules. The incinerators do meet the requirements of design (two chambers with system of proper temperature maintenance etc. The capacity of the incinerators as reported seems to be on higher side.
    • Proper Stack, Emission monitoring facility and Air pollution control system are not provided in the incinerators.
    • Arrangements for power supply may be made in case of power cuts during operation of incinerators.
    • Proper segregation, storage, treatment and disposal practices are not followed in the hospital.
    • Hospital should apply to respective State Pollution Control Board for authorization under biomedical rules.
    • Trained manpower may be provided for Operation and Maintenance of Incinerator.

14.3 PERFORMANCE STUDIES OF COMMON BIOMEDICAL WASTE TREATMENT FACILITY (CBMWTF)

Central Region

Fourteen Common Biomedical Waste (BMW) Treatment Facilities have been established in Central Region, of which eleven are operating in Madhya Pradesh, one in Rajasthan and two in Chhattisgarh. Facilities are having incinerator with other supporting equipments like autoclave, shredder, chemical treatment, deep burial etc. The details of the facilities along with the status of authorization granted by the prescribed authority is presented in Table 14.3.

Eight CBWTFs were visited by Central Pollution Control Board for verification of compliance as per the BMW Rules, 1998. The details of the facilities provided by CBWTFs, year of starting, area required for CBWTF and capacity of incinerator etc. are presented in Table 14.3. The equipments available with these facilities with their adequacy to dispose-off BMW are given in the Table. Some of the CBWTF operating without the consent / authorization from the prescribed authority. The status is as below:

M/s. Bhopal Memorial Hospital & Research Centre, Bhopal

It facilitate disposal of BMW of 350 beds and their associated dispensaries in the city. All required instruments / equipments except air pollution control devices and secured landfill site for dumping of incinerated ash. The CBWTF is under utilized due to less quantity of BMW available for disposal. Emission of prescribed air pollutant from the stack and wastewater discharges from ETP were found well within the prescribed norms.

M/s. Bhopal Incinerator Ltd., Bhopal

The facility covers 193 hospitals / nursing homes 2259 beds located in the Bhopal city. It has got all the required infrastructure for the CBWTF except autoclave. Some of the equipment such as shredder required to be modified as per the guidelines. Housekeeping and maintenance of the records for the movement of BMW have been found in order. Concentration of HCl gas in flue gas was found exceeding the prescribed norms and wastewater generated by the facility is being treated in the CETP located near the facility.

M/s. Elite Engineer, Jabalpur

CBWTF is catering services to 50 hospitals / nursing homes having total 1280 beds. The facility at present have not provided all the equipments / instruments for the treatment of BMW except the incinerator and ETP. It is running 10-15 hours per day to incinerate the BMW collected from various places. The sufficient area i.e. 1.8 acre of land allotted to them by the municipal corporation in outer skirt of the city. The existing facility required to be upgraded considering the load of BMW. It is informed that the facility is being upgraded with advanced equipments/capacity and made operational by January, 2006.

M/s. Hoswin Incinerator Pvt. Ltd., Indore

It is the second biggest CBWTF with respect to handling of the BMW in central zone. It covers 289 hospitals / nursing homes having total 4594 beds. It has got required infrastructure for operation of CBWTF. Some of the equipments such as shredder, autoclave are required to be modified as per the CPCB guidelines. BOD values in the treated wastewater which is being reused in the scrubber was slightly higher than the prescribed limit.

M/s. Sales Promoters C/o. G.R. Medical College, Gwalior

The facility cater services to 169 hospitals having 1962 beds in the city. The facility does not meet the criteria for operating CBWTF. It has only incinerator for burning of BMW. The equipment / facility requires such as shredder, autoclave, air pollution control devices, ETP, secured landfill etc. are not available. It was informed by the operator i.e. M/s.Sales Promoters that the authority of G.R. Medical College, Gwalior do not provide funds and necessary infrastructure to run the facility as CBWTF. The contract was being renewed on yearly basis only. During the stack emission monitoring, the concentration of HCl has been found exceeding the permissible limit. The wastewater generated from the facility was directly discharged without treatment.

M/s.Sales Promoters C/o. NSCB Medical College, Jabalpur

The facility is covering 82 hospitals having 641 beds. It is operating at the medical college premises without efficient air pollution control devices and ETP. It does not have required infrastructure for CBWTF. One more CBWTF i.e. M/s Elight Engineers is being operated in the city. Two CBWTF in one city having bed number less than 10,000 is non-compliance of guideline prescribed. It may be either shifted away from sensitive area or the waste of the medical college may be disposed off by other CBWTF.

M/s Instromedix (I) Pvt. Ltd., Jaipur

It is having highest capacity of incinerator i.e. 250 kg per hour catering 445 hospitals located in Jaipur, Alwar and Bharatpur in Rajasthan. All required infrastructure for CBWTF is available and adequate. Repair on incinerator and its temperature control panel are required.

M/s. E-Tech Project Pvt. Ltd., Bhilai

Facility catering services to 156 hospitals having total 2480 beds at Durg, Bhilai and Raipur in Chhattisgarh. It has required infrastructure except autoclave. Some of the equipments such as shredder, temperature control panel of incinerator, ETP etc. requires modification / repairing for better efficiency.

Based on the performance studies following are the recommendations:

  • Short-term contract to operate CBWTF should be avoided. Minimum three years time period should be given to contractor for running the facility by the State Govt./ Nursing Home Association.

  • Operation of individual incinerators should be discouraged. Closer of existing incinerator in the area of CBWTF to be initiated by prescribed authority.

  • The incinerators are being operated in Medical Colleges at Jabalpur & Gwalior in the heart of city or in residential areas. It is desirable that incinerators must be shifted away from residential area and provide required infrastructure as per CPCB guidelines to dispose BMW. The possibility for spread of epidemic cannot be ruled out if the present practice continued.

  • On the basis of bed strength, a uniform fee structure may be adopted by the CBWTF facilitators in consultation with prescribed authorities.

  • It was informed by the CBWTF that they do not get payment from the health care facilities regularly which force them to bypass the treatment system. To avoid this situation, all hospitals should remit their charges on yearly basis to the prescribed authority at the time of obtaining consent or during its renewal and CBWTF can get payment from them, timely.

  • It is recommended to have only one CBWTF in the city instead of more than one. (Name of the health care facility have more than 10,000 beds). The state authority should ensure not to allow more than one CBWTF in each city in central region.

  • None of the CBWTFs maintains site records which is needed for preparing action plan.

  • The majority of CBWTFs facilitator are not sending the BMW as per the BMW Rules. CBWTFs should inform prescribed authority, so that appropriate action taken against the defaulting hospitals/nursing homes

Table 14.3 : Status of Common Biomedical Waste Treatment Facility in Central Zone

S. No

CBWTF

Validity of Authorisation

City covered

Method of disposal

1.

M/s Association of Nursing Homes, Khandawa

Applied

Khandawa,M.P.

Deep burial

2.

M/s BMHRC, Bhopal

Applied

Bhopal,M.P.

Incineration & others

3.

M/s Bhopal Incinerator Ltd., Bhopal

21/06/2006

Bhopal,M.P.

Incineration & others

4.

M/s Chandra Projects, Chhindwara, M.P.

30/06/05

Chhindwara,M.P.

Deep burial

5.

M/s Elite Engineers, Jabalpur, M.P.

30/06/05

Jabalpur,M.P.

Incineration & others

6.

M/s.Green Environment Technology, Hoshangabad M.P.

29/02/04

Hosangabad,M.P.

Deep burial

7.

M/s Hoswin Incinerator Pvt. Ltd., Indore M.P.

31/12/05

Indore, Dewas, Ujjain, Sanwer, Mhow, Dhar, Rao, Badwah, Sanwar, Burhanpur, Khargon

Incineration & others

8.

M/s.Sales Promoters C/o. NSCB, Medical College, Jabalpur (M.P)

14/03/04

Jabalpur city area

Incineration

9.

M/s.Sales Promoters C/o. G.R. Medical College, Gwalior (M.P)

11/07/04

Gwalior city area

Incineration

10.

M/s. District Hospital, Satna M.P.

30/06/05

Satna

Incineration

11.

M/s Tiptop Upkeep, Indore (M.P.)

Applied (operating at medical College, Indore)

Indore

Incineration

12.

M/s Instromedix (I) Pvt. Ltd., Jaipur

31/07/04

Jaipur, Bharatpur& Alwar

Incineration

13.

M/s.Chhattisgarh Environmental Consultancy, Bilaspur

10/12/05

Korba

Deep burial

14.

M/s.E-Tech Project Pvt. Ltd., Bhilai (CG)

05/01/06

Raipur, Durg & Bhilai

Incineration & others

Western Region

With the growth of population in Gujarat and Maharashtra, the Health Care Facilities are also developed in large scale and generates huge quantity of biomedical waste. 25% of the total medical waste is classified as Regulated Medical Waste (Infectious Waste) and Hazardous waste, which need proper scientific treatment before disposal. There are 11 and 17 bio medical waste incinerators working for the disposal of medical waste in Gujarat and Maharashtra. Most of the CBMWTF are established before coming up of revised guidelines for Bio-Medical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 1998 as amended. Vadodara and Jamnagar from Gujarat and Pune from Maharashtra disposed their incinerator waste through Municipal Solid Waste. The others are disposing their incinerator ash through nearest approved TSDF sites. The treatment facility includes autoclaving for disinfectant of general solid waste. After conforming the color test, the waste is subjected to mechanical means to avoid reuse and the waste is directly sent to the TSDF sites.

Eastern Region

The common biomedical waste treatment facility at Belgachia, Howrah, is installed to facilitate the treatment of bio-medical wastes generated by the twin cities - Kolkata and Howrah. This facility (CBWTF) is operated by M/s Medicare Incin. Pvt. Ltd., Belgachia, Howrah (HMC Hotmix Plant Complex) a sister concern of Hyderabad based M/s Ramky Enviro Engineering Ltd., offering the facilities of collecting, transporting, treatment and disposal of BMW originated from 30,000 beds from the health care units (HCU) of the greater Howrah Municipal Corporation (HMC) and Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC) jurisdiction. Presently 757 HCUs (approx. 29,975 beds) are being covered.

The day to day operations and regular maintenance of the CBWTF depend on the joint financial contribution from the participating HCUs. The private HCUs are regularly paying on monthly basis for the services they get, however, the same is not happening from the Govt. Hospitals and HCUs and this may hamper the spirit of setting up the CBWTF.

The wastes are collected in double colored Polythene Bags from the Health Care Units The blue bags are used for the autoclavable items (plastics, glass etc.) and the yellow bag for incinerable material (mainly placenta, bandages etc.). The wastes are collected in puncture proof plastic buckets (with lids) from common collection points that have been identified in each HCU.

Proper segregation at source (HCU) is not being done. It has been seen that the operator undertakes segregation manually before putting the waste to the incinerator/ Autoclave.

The CBWTF has a dedicated fleet for transporting BMW from the respective HCUs to treatment facility. The collection of BMW from the various HCUs occur between 6 am to 2 pm and the incinerator is operated from 4 pm onwards. The CBWTF have following operational units.

Incinerator (200 Kg/hr Capacity)

The ash generation from the incinerator is about 2% of the load. The ash is collected in polythene bags and stored within the premise, and are proposed to dump at a common waste facility coming up at Haldia. The gaseous emissions from the incinerator passes through two scrubbers; first Ventury and second using water and then finally let out through the stack by an ID fan. The stack is 30 m high from the ground and having diameter of 0.49 m. Necessary platform and portholes are provided for the stack monitoring.

Autoclaves

There are three autoclaves, of which two remains as stand by. The operational autoclave is Horizontal High Pressure, High Vacuum autoclave. This autoclave is followed by a shredder and a conveyor belt.

Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP)

The discharges from the scrubbers and vehicle-washing platform constitute the effluent. An ETP is provided to treat the effluent, which has oil trap, sedimentation tanks and filtration columns (Sand and activated Carbon). A standby sand filtration tank for the temporary storage of effluent during regeneration or when the column gets repaired has been installed. The treated effluent is completely recycled in the scrubbing units, thus having zero discharge.

Common Bio-medical waste treatment facility, Allahabad

This facility has been set-up by M/s Ferro Build Hards (I) Pvt.Ltd.in Allahabad. At the cost of about 25 lakhs. Operator has installed oil fired incinerator of 60 Kg/hr capacity attached with water scrubber. Shredder of 20 Kg/hr and chemical treatment tanks . An ETP has also been installed by the operator to treat the liquid effluents.

Partially segregated waste is received by the facility from about 90 health care establishments with approx.3000 beds. The wet scrubber and ash disposal practices of the unit needs improvement. The plot area of the facility is less than one acre. The record maintenance practices need improvement.

 

Inspection of Vivekanand Hospital, Lucknow

A project of Model segregation practices for bio-medical waste was implemented in the hospital with the help of WHO/CPCB. Various equipment like microwave, shredder, and autoclave have been installed in the hospital for treatment of waste. Effective Segregation practices have also been adopted by the hospital by virtue of which all biomedical waste is treated in hospital’s waste management complex except incinerable part which is provided to Nagar Nigam for treatment in common Incinerator.

Development of Guidelines and Standards for Common Hazardous Waste Incinerators

In order to Development of Guidelines for Common Hazardous Waste Incinerator, following plants were visited with emphasis on aspects of operation and maintenance of incinerators. The status is depicted in Table 14.4.

  • Ramky Pharmacity (India) Ltd., Mumbai Waste Management Ltd.

  • Gujarat Enviro Protection and Infrastructure Ltd., Surat (Gujarat)

  • Bharuch Enviro Infrastructure Ltd., Ankaleshwar, (Gujarat)

 

Table 14.4 Status and Observation of Common Hazardous Waste Incinerator Facilities

Ramky Pharmacity (India) Ltd.

[Mumbai Waste Management Ltd.]

Gujarat Enviro Protection and Infrastructure Ltd., Surat (Gujarat)

Bharuch Enviro Infrastructure Ltd.,

Ankaleshwar

(Gujarat)

Type of facilities available

All the 3 plants are having `Integrated Common Hazardous Waste Management Facility`

Capacity of the Incinerator /Status of operation during visit

  • 1.25 to 1.75 T/hr.
  • In operation

  • 700 kg/hr (solids) or 1200 kg/hr liquids
  • Not in operation since long
  • Capacity :- 6.5 Million K Cal / Hour
  • Feeding Capacity approximately 2.5 MT / Hour
  • In operation
  • Status of transportation, un-loading, storage and feeding systems to combustion chambers

    • 18 vehicles for collection
    • Unloading –OK
    • Storage – Scope is there for improvement.
    • Feeding System – OK

  • Only 3 vehicles for collection.
  • Unloading –OK
  • Storage – Scope is there for improvement.
  • Feeding System in PCC as well as in SCC improperly designed.
    • Personal vehicles and hired also
    • through approved transporters; manifest system is followed; training given to Drivers
    • .
    • Unloading, Storage and Feeding System Adequate

    Quality criteria followed for accepting waste from the member industries (heat content / calorific value, inorganic content , salts , metals etc.

    • Wastes for incineration are accepted based on calorific values and chlorine content. May be mixed with other wastes.

    • In the Authorisation issued by GPCB to the member industries, mode of disposal for each kind of wastes, is prescribed.
    • In general waste with 1500-2000 Kcal / kg of CV are accepted for incineration.

    Compatibility of different types of wastes & homogenization of wastes to have similar / same heat content

    During inspection, it appeared that presently various experiments are being performed by the Facilitators for homogenization of wastes to have similar / same heat content but it will take sometime to develop some system.

    Flow Sheet of Incineration / Design Consultant

    • Rotary Kiln, SCC, Quenching (evaporative type), Bag filter, Wet Scrubber , Chimney
    • ALSTOM make incinerator

  • Rotary Kiln, SCC, Cyclone separator, cooling by air mixing before heat exchanger, alkali scrubber, Chimney (30 m)
  • Local Surat make incinerator
  • Rotary Kiln, SCC, water quencher (evaporator type), Lime / Carbon Injection
  • for removal of acid gases, SO2 and VOCs, Bag Filter, Wet Scrubber, De-mister, Re-heater, Chimney (45 m) and continuous monitoring system.
  • Thermax Ltd, Pune, designed and supplied the Common Incineration System
  • •Weston Solutions, USA, has provided technology support
  • Type of Primary Combustion Chamber / Feeding Pattern

    Rotary Kiln without inclin- ation / co-current feeding

    Rotary Kiln with inclination / counter-current feeding

    Rotary Kiln with inclination /co-current feeding

    No. of chambers required in case of solids , liquids and gaseous wastes

    Solid wastes – primary and secondary both, liquid wastes – depending upon the calorific value either both or directly into secondary chamber. Gaseous wastes – So far not practiced in India. Dual feeding is also sometimes practiced.

    Prevailing Temperatures in the PCC

    Nearly 550 °C as discussed. HSD fired.

    800-900 °C.

    LDO Fired

    800-1300°C

    Natural gas fired.

    Solid retention time – 90 minutes

    Prevailing Temperatures in the SCC

    • Around 1100 °C
    • Gas Retention time 2 seconds (claimed)

    • Around 1100 °C
    • Gas Retention time 2 seconds (claimed)

  • 1100 °C – 1300 °C depending upon chlorine concentration,
  • Gas Retention time 2.5 seconds (claimed)
  • Adequacy of turbulence / mixing in PCC

    Claim – Through design of kiln, feeding system and air injection system

    Claim – Through design of nozzles

    Claim – Through design of kiln, feeding system and air injection system

    Status of installation of Heat Recovery System

    Not installed

    Not installed

    Not installed

    Status of Online Monitoring for all requisite parameters

    Industry claims for the same but during inspection could not be verified. Detailed study is needed.

    It appeared that there is a good scope for improvement in online monitoring.

    It appeared that online monitoring is being conducted. Detailed study is recommended.

    General Remarks

    • Horizontal Design of Rotary without inclination may create problems of slag removal. No satisfactory reply by the industry is provided.
    • The computerized control / display units showing various operational parameters are yet to be made functional.
    • Installation of Heat Recovery System is recommended.

    • The incinerator was appeared as not designed properly.
    • Lacks in respect of proper quenching system and particulate removal system. Installation of bag filter is needed. Possibility of large emissions of dioxins, furans can not be ruled out.
    • No lining system in the stack. Possibility of corrosion.
    • Height of stack only 30 meters.
    • Stack monitoring location in the stack needs to be changed to make it as per norms.
    • Online monitoring for O2, CO, NOx, SOx only. HC planned.
    • There is a good scope for overall improvement in the entire incinerator system.
    • Installation of Heat Recovery System is recommended

  • The overall design of the incinerator, make, Consultant, storage, feeding and incineration system, emission control system, monitoring system and other practices appeared as adequate.
  • In Rotary Kiln, at joint to SCC sealing is required. Leakages of fugitive emissions were observed.
  • Installation of Heat Recovery System is recommended.
  •  

    14.4 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

    Questionnaire Survey of Class I Cities and Class II Towns for Water Supply Sewage and Solid Waste Information

    Domestic sewage is responsible for about eighty percent of water pollution in India. Municipal solid waste is further aggravating the problem. Most of the cities are not having adequate sewage treatment and municipal solid waste processing facilities. Preparation of reports on status of sewage collection / treatment / disposal and municipal solid waste collection / processing / disposal is very important for highlighting need of urgent planning and action in these areas. Realizing this fact CPCB regularly conducted inventories of these aspects. CPCB conducted questionnaire survey of Class I cities and Class II towns during 1978, 1988 and 1995. Number of Metro cities, Class I cities and Class II towns have increased from 23, 299, 345 to 35, 425, 498 respectively after last survey. CPCB has started a fresh questionnaire survey of Metro cities, Class I cities and Class II cites in November 2004.

    Implementation of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Rules

    Pursuant to the Hon’ble Supreme Court’s directives, CPCB interacted with State Pollution Control Boards, (SPCBs) and Pollution Control Committees (PCCs) to get the action plans prepared for management of municipal solid wastes (MSW) for 35 metro cities and 24 State capitals. CPCB received inputs from SPCBs and PCCs and collated information on action plans for forwarding to the Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India. It has been observed that many cities have taken initiatives to organize proper Collection, Segregation, Storage and Transportation of waste. Steps have also been taken for setting up of Waste Processing and Disposal facilities. States like Gujarat, Maharashtra and Karnataka have formulated State level policies for implementation of MSW Rules which include formulation of plans for setting up of compost plants and establishing sanitary landfills.

    Status of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Management in 59 Cities

    The studies have been undertaken Central Pollution Control Board in collaboration with NEERI, Nagpur regarding "Assessment of Status of Municipal Solid Wastes Management in Metro Cities and State Capitals" with a view to establishing database at National level for selected 59 cities. The selected cities include 35 metro cities and 24 State capitals. The objectives of the study is to collect field data on composition and characteristics of municipal solid waste alongwith determination of waste generation rates. Field studies for all the 59 cities have been completed. Studies have revealed that waste generation rate varies from 0.12 to 0.60 kg per capita per day. Analysis of physical composition indicates total compostable matter in the waste is in the range of 40-60 percent while recyclable fraction was observed between 10 and 25 per cent. The moisture content in the MSW was observed varying from 30 to 60 per cent while the C:N ratio was observed to be in the range of 20-40.

    Based on the study, suggestive guidelines for management of MSW are indicated and each local body will have to prepare detailed project report estimating requirement of tools and equipment and fund estimates.

    Methane Emissions from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Disposal Sites

    Most of the waste disposal sites in the country are at the uncontrolled dumps. These sites are constant threat to ground water contamination and emits several gases including methane. Due to various variable factors, it becomes difficult to estimate correct quantities of such gaseous emissions. With this background, CPCB instituted studies on estimation of landfill gases in collaboration with Indian Agriculture Research Institute (IARI), New Delhi and National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI), Nagpur.

    Organic matter content in the deposited MSW at the landfill site tends to decompose anaerobically leading to emissions of volatile organic compounds and gaseous byproducts. Emission of gaseous products from landfills commonly called landfill gas (LFG) contains methane and carbon dioxide as major constituents. LFG has potential for non-conventional energy, which also contributes to greenhouse gas effect, if not managed properly. The study involved development of methodology for monitoring LFG emissions from the landfill at Nagpur and validation of methodology at other landfill sites.

    For the studies, flux box method was used for LFG flux emission measurement. The unit consist of a rectangular box (60cm x 33 cm x 70 cm) of plexiglass provided with support of MS angles. The box is provided with ports for collection of LFG samples and recording the inside temperature initially, the monitoring was carried out at Bhandewadi disposal site at Nagpur and validity of the methodology was tested at Sukhali landfill site in Amravati (6.0 lakhs population). The LFG emission flux for landfill site at Nagpur was observed in the range of 0.57 to 16.5 mg/m2/sec while for Amravati landfill sites the LFG emission flux was in the range of 0.67 and 0.88 mg/m2/sec. The results of study indicated that the established methodology for Nagpur landfill site could be very well applied for other landfill sites in the country.

    Characterization of Compost Quality and its Application in Agriculture.

    The Central Pollution Control Board has undertaken detailed studies on characterization of compost quality and its application on agricultural crops in collaboration with IARI, New Delhi. Seven compost plants were studied for characterization of compost quality. Studies indicated that average concentration of heavy metals in the raw waste that was fed to the various compost plants was in the range of 47 to 185 mg per kg in respect of lead, 36-63 mg/kg for nickel and 1.5 to 6.5 mg/kg for cadmium. The levels of mercury in raw waste was between 0.01 and 0.23 mg/kg. Heavy metals in the finished compost were ranging as follows; Lead; 108-203 mg/kg; Nickel- 8-80 mg/kg; Cadmium-3.8-12.4 mg/kg and Magnesium – 0.01-0.31 mg/kg.

    The production and use of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) based compost and sewage sludge generated in various metros and municipalities have good protection. The research has been largely restricted to its production, composition etc. Relatively few studies have been conducted on its safe and economic disposal and its application on agricultural land in different cropping system. With this in view, the project has been taken up by Central Pollution Control Board in collaboration with IARI, New Delhi to cover the safe and beneficial use of MSW compost and sewage sludge in agriculture vis a vis its environmental impacts based on extensive experimentations and a review of the scientific literature.

    It has been observed that the growth attributes of wheat/ maize and vegetable crops viz., plant height, number of cobs/tillers/sq. metre, dry matter production and leaf area index were increased due to supply of nitrogen through combination of different doses of urea with compost/ sewage sludge.

    Assessment of Health Status of Conservancy Staff and other Community landfill MSW

    The study was instituted by CPCB on assessment of health status of conservancy staff and other community associated with handling of solid waste management. The study was taken-up at Kolkata through Chittaranjan Cancer Research Institute and at Chennai with the assistance of Sri. Ramchandra Medical College. The objective of the study is to assess health status of each target group involved in handling of municipal solid waste (MSW).

    Health assessment studies at Kolkata included clinical examination of 732 individuals of which, 376 were conservancy workers, 151 raegpickers and 205 controls. The findings of the study at Kolkata are summarized in Table 14.5.

    Table 14.5 Assessment of Health Status of Conservancy Staff and Community Landfill at Kolkata

    Parameter

    Conservancy Workers

    Rag Picker

    Municipal Solid Waste Workers

    Implications

    Upper respiratory symptoms

    43

    82

    93

    Infection in nose, throat

    Lower respiratory symptoms

    32

    80

    89

    Infection in lung

    Impaired lung function

    43

    84

    71

    Breathing problem

    Sputum neutrophilia

    13

    53

    64

    Infection, Inflammation

    Elevated AM number

    12

    65

    85

    High PM10 exposure

    Larger and multinucleated AM

    8

    23

    32

    Sustained high pollution load

    Multinucleated giant cell

    2

    5

    10

    Bacterial infection

    Curschman’s spiral

    2

    4

    5

    Obstruction in airways

    Goblet cell hyperplasia

    2

    16

    25

    Elevated mucus production

    Elevated siderophage count

    6

    34

    44

    Covert lung hemorrhage

    Elevated micronucleus count

    8

    68

    82

    Chromosome break

    Low haemoglobin, RBC in blood

    17

    32

    45

    Anemia

    Leukocytosis

    7

    26

    34

    Infection

    Elevated platelet count

    12

    62

    75

    Cardiovascular rish

    High platelet P-selectin

    9

    55

    87

    Do

    Low CD 4+high CD8+cells

    11

    42

    78

    Altered immunity

    Low CD20+high CD56+cells

    12

    54

    89

    Do

    Sputum eosinophilia

    11

    28

    36

    Allergy, asthma

    Municipal Solid Waste Demonstration Projects

    To demonstrate implementation of the provisions of MSW rules, the Central Pollution Control Board undertook pilot projects at North Dum-Dum and New Barrackpore municipalities in West Bengal, Chandigarh and at Udumalpet in Tamil Nadu. The purpose of these projects is to undertake collection, segregation, storage, transportation, processing and disposal of waste in accordance with MSW rules. The demo-project are on cost sharing basis where the respective local bodies have agreed to share 50% of the total cost of the project. The progress is summarized as ahead.

    North Dum-Dum and New Barrackpore (West Bengal)

    • The North Dum-Dum Municipality submitted formal NOC application to the Airport Authority Kolkata. The NOC Committee of the Kolkata Airport Authority reviewed the application and had already sent it to the Delhi Airport Authority with their recommendation for the clearance.

    • The New Barrackpore Municipality has received all the equipments for collection storage and transportation of solid wastes and North Dum-Dum Municipality has received 75% of the same.

    • West Bengal Pollution Control Board has received the modified project report of NPC for landfill site from KMDA. The project report for setting up of compost Plant is also finalized with the assistance of KCDC.

    • Both the municipalities have done the awareness campaign several time in their areas involving the school students, NGOs, Ward Committees, Bazar Committees. They have also prepared the documentary film, showing the awareness programme, door-to-door collection, transportation and storage of the municipal solid wastes using the new equipments procured under the project.

    Chandigarh (UT)

    • One hunred number of Garbage container of 6.5 M3 Capacity have been procurred.

    • Out of 200 large/small cycle carts each, a total number of 155 cycle carts have been received.

    • One number of mechanical Road sweeper has been procured and performance is being assessed.

    14.5 PLASTIC WASTE MANAGEMENT

    Summary of Plastics Waste Management in the States/Union Territories

    Government of India has notified "Recycled Plastics Manufacture and usage Rules, 1999 as amended during year 2003, which are applicable throughout in the all the States/Union Territories. Out of 34 States and Union territories, 15 States and Union territories have brought out separate Non-biodegradable Garbage Act. These States and Union Territories are also conducting mass-awareness programmes to make the public aware about the ill-effect of littering of plastics. As per the provisions of the "Recycled Plastics Manufacturer and usage Rules, 1999 as amended 2003", all the plastics manufacturing/recycling units are to be registered with concerned State Pollution Control Boards/Pollution Control committees. In this context, 21 States Pollution Control Boards/Pollution Control committees have completed process of inventorisation process and started granting registration.

    Recycling of Plastics through Environmentally Sound Process

    The Central Pollution Control Board in collaboration with Jadavpur University, Kolkata has re-engineered a process for plastics recycling. The existing extrusion process are not considered as environmentally sound as they cause noise and fugitive emissions. The machine developed and tested by the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata is equipped with pollution monitoring and control device and has been tested for fugitive emissions, which were found far less. The main components of the machine are detailed below :

    Segregation, Cutting, Cleaning & pulping

    Raw materials collected from the supplier are stored at the proper place. The segregated High and low density polyethylene (HDPE & LDPE) are cut and cleaned (wherever required) with the help of detergent. The cleaned plastic wastes are taken to a machine called agglomerator with low temperature heating arrangement to convert plastic wastes in the form of pulp like shape which act as raw material for extrusion process. In some cases the cleaned and cut plastic wastes directly fed to the extrusion machine.

    Extrusion & Pelletization

    It is undertaken in a barrel and screw type extrusion machine with band electric heater. Power is supplied from a motor and the screw barrel is fed through a gearbox. Electric band heater is heated through electrical power source. Crushed raw material is fed through the hopper. Output from the extrusion machine is the wire shape plastics, which is palletized to get plastic granules.

    Re- Engineering the Extrusion Process

    The Extrusion and Pelletisation process have been redesigned to minimise the pollution from the process and to enhance the efficiency of the process (Fig. 14.1).

     

     

     

     

    Fig. 14.1 Flow-Chart of the "Green Recycling Process" – The Pilot Plant

    It is anticipated that the reengineered machine can replace the existing maclines to minimize pollution problems. Interactions are made with the manufacturers to commercialise the developed machine. The emissions in form of sulphur dioxide ( SO2), gaseous Hydrochloric Acid (HCl), Formaldehyde (HCHO), Carbon Monoxide & Dioxide (CO & CO2 ), NOX and Particulate matters in mg/m3 were measured. It has been found that in most of the cases the measured value of Carbon Monoxide Dioxide ( CO & CO2) and Nitrous Oxides (NOX) in mg/m3 were found below the detectable limit. But the presence of sulphur dioxide, gaseous hydrochloric acid and formaldehyde were predominant.

    It has been observed that the concentration of all these three gases have been reduced by 80% to below detectable limit (BDL) in the green recycling process. HDPE contribute maximum amount of all the three gases in case of waste plastics which came down to 82 % to 95 %. It has been concluded from the that the green recycling process has reduced the pollution level of the emitted gases during the extrusion by 82 % to 95 % which is beneficial for the environment as well as the human being and the society.

    Utilisation of Plastics Waste in Road Construction

    Since Plastics show binding property on softening (heating around 140 degree C), this property can be used to modify Bitumen, a binder for road construction. Studies are being carried out at Department of Chemistry on this line and it has been observed that polymer coated aggregate with Bitumen is a better materials for road construction in terms of strength and resistance to wands rain water. In addition, by this process, the plastic waste find a very useful disposal technique and a new technology can come into existence. Polymer blended Bitumen shows higher Softening point, lower penetration point, and better ductility. Polymer coated aggregate blended with Bitumen shows higher Marshall value and better stripping value showing that the mix is more suited for road laying.

    Process of road laying using polymer- aggregate – Bitumen mix

    The dry cleaned or dried plastics waste is shredded into small pieces (passing through 4.35mm sieve) The aggregate (granite) is heated to 170oC in the Mini Hot Mix Plant and then shredded plastics waste is added, It gets softened and coated over the aggregate. Immediately the hot Bitumen (160oC) is added and mixed well. As the polymer and the bitumen are in the molten state (liquid state) they get mixed and the blend is formed at surface of the aggregate. The mixture is transferred for laying roads. This technique is extended to Central Mixing Plant too.

    Salient features of the polymer-waste-bitumen mix Road

    - Road strength is twice stronger than normal roads;

    - Resistance towards water stagnation i.e. no potholes are formed;

    - Less bleeding during summer;

    - Burning of plastics waste could be avoided

    - It doesn’t involve any extra machinery;

    - It doesn’t increase cost of road construction; and

    - It helps to reduce the consumption of bituminous mix vis-à-vis reduce cost

    It has been observed that addition of plastics waste upto 10-15% by weight of bitumen resulted into higher values of softening point and lower values of penetration, which are appreciable improvements in the properties of the binder. This has resulted and withstood higher traffic load and high temperature variation. Several experimental stretches have been laid in the State of Tamilnadu, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Pondicherry using both Mini hot-mix and Central mixing plants.

    14.6 ENVIRONMENT SURVEILLANCE SQUAD - ACTIVITIES

    North Eastern Region

    The following industries have been inspected under Environment Surveillance Squad activities:

    • M/s Oil India Limited, Duliajan at OCS-5 & Central Tank farm
    • M/s Gas based Power Plant of NEEPCO at Kathalguri
    • M/s East India Petro-Chemical (P) Ltd., Naoholia, Assam
    • M/s Brahmaputra Valley Fertilizer Corporation, Namrup
    • M/s BRPL – Bongaigaon
    • M/s North-East Gases
    • M/s Assam Chemicals Company
    • M/s Ahimsa Chemicals, Nalbari

    Western Region

    34 industries have been visited under ESS programme in Gujarat and Maharashtra for the compliance verification of various categories of industries.

    Central Region

    The following industries have been inspected under Environmental Surveillance Squad Activities.

    S. No.

    Industry

    Category

    1

    M/s Century Cement, Hirni

    Cement

    2

    M/s Lafarge India Ltd, Sonadih

    Cement

    3

    M/s L&T Ltd, Hirni

    Cement

    4

    M/s Century Cement, Baikunth

    Cement

    5

    M/s Ambuja Cement Eastern Ltd,Bhatapara

    Cement

    6

    M/s Grasim Cement, Rawan

    Cement

    7

    M/s J.K.Cement Works, Nimbahera

    Cement

    8

    M/s Balco Korba

    Cement

    9

    M/s Kota thermal Power Plant, Kota

    Thermal

    10

    M/s Ranbaxy Pharmaceuticals, Dewas,

    Basic Drugs

    11

    M/s Medilux Laboratories, Pithampur

    Basic Drugs

    12

    M/s Biotech-Synergy, Pithampur

    Basic Drugs

    13

    M/s Vindyachal distilleries, Pilukhedi

    Distillery

    14

    M/s Grasim Chemicals, Nagda

    Caustic Soda

    15

    M/s Hukumchand Jute Mills, Amlai

    Caustic Soda

    16

    M/s Shriram Vinyle & Chemicals, Kota

    Caustic Soda

    17

    M/s Lafarge India Ltd, Arasmetta

    Cement

    18

    M/s Rama Phosphates Ltd, Indore

    Fertilizer

    19

    M/s Tata International Ltd, Dewas

    Tannery

    20

    M/s Suratgarh Thermal Power Station, Suratgarh

    Thermal

    21

    M/s Pratibha Syntex Ltd, Indore

    Textile

    22

    M/s Lupin Laboratories, Mandideep

    Basic Drugs

    23

    M/s Chambal Fertilizers, Gadepan

    Fertilizer

    24

    M/s NTPC (Gas Based ), Anta

    Thermal

    25

    M/s BEC Fertilizer, Bilaspur

    Fertilizer

    26

    M/s Wellcome Distillery, Bilaspur

    Distillery

    The Central Pollution Control Board has issued directions to various industries, based on the inspection reports under ESS and Hazardous inventorization cross-checking.

    S. No.

    Industry

    Directions

    1

    M/s Welcome Distillery, Cherkabandha

    Chhatisgarh state

    Direction under section 5 of EP (Act) issued for closure

    2

    M/s Rose Zinc Ltd.,

    Udaipur

    Direction under Section 5 of EP (Act) for implementation of the recommendations

    3

    M/s Shriram Rayons,

    Kota

    Based on the recommendation Head office letter to RSPCB to initiate action as per the HWM rules

    4

    M/s Bharat oil Jaipur

    Based on the recommendation Head office letter to RSPCB to initiate action as per the HWM rules

     

    14.7 ACTIVITIES UNDER THE ENVIRONMENT POLLUTION (PREVENTION AND CONTROL) AUTHORITY

    Construction of Bye-pass

    In view of the Hon’ble court’s interest in the matter and the importance of this measure in controlling vehicular pollution in the national capital region of Delhi EPCA reviewed the status of implementation of the relevant court orders in order to report progress to the Court. In this regard EPCA has organized a series of meetings with the relevant state government agencies from all the concerned states and the central government i.e. PWD, Haryana, PWD, Uttar Pradesh, Delhi Police, and National Highways Authority of India. Four alternate routes for bye-passing of the goods vehicles that were suggested by the Delhi police to the Hon’ble Court in response to the Court order, dated December 6, 2001. After discussion with the concerned State Governments, Delhi Police and the National Highway Authority of India, EPCA submitted a report to the Hon’ble Supreme Court in November 2004 for speedy action construction of by-passes.

    RSPM Levels in Various Cities

    The Hon’ble Supreme Court vide its order dated August 14,2003 has directed Union of India and various states to draw a plan for lowering the rate of RSPM level in various cities. In this regard information from various departments at Kanpur and Lucknow cities like Traffic, Transport, Nagar Nigam, Development authotities, Oil Companies, GAIL, Pollution Control Boards was collected and sent to (Environment Pollution (Prevention & control) authority. A meeting was also organized in both these cities in which various stake holders participated. The data gaps were identified and time bound action plan was requested from various departments. The follow-up meetings also organized for action plan points, communicated by EPCA.

    Implementation of New/in-use Vehicles Emission Norms

    All in-use vehicles in the country are required to have a valid Pollution Under Control (PUC) certificate. But even as emission norms for the new vehicles were made stringent, the government did not revise the norms for checking the emissions from in-use fleet. Therefore, the old vehicles (which clearly would emit higher), were regulated at par with new vehicles, which should be emitting lesser emissions In February 10, 2004, the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways (MoRTH) revised the in-use vehicle emissions norms, which are to be implemented across the country from October 1, 2004.

    EPCA had reviewed the implementation of the new in-use emission norms throughout the country. EPCA has discussed the issue with various key officials of various state transport departments and state pollution control board. In its special report "The implementation of the in-use emission norms as amended by the Union government in February 2004" submitted in November 2004, wherein directions from the Hon’ble Supreme Court have been sought.

    Increase in the number of three-wheelers in Delhi

    The three-wheeled scooter rickshaw (TSR) plays a very important role as intermediate public transport in the country. Delhi has around 53,262 registered three-wheelers as of August 31, 2004 running on compressed natural gas (CNG). The Hon’ble court has time and again discussed issues pertaining to three-wheelers in Delhi, from the point of congestion and also of pollution. The order of December 1997 imposed a cap on issuing fresh permits to the three-wheelers in Delhi. Registration was allowed only on replacement basis. In December 2002 however the Hon’ble court allowed a further increase (5,000) in the number of three wheelers.

    EPCA held a meeting on October 23, 2004 with various Unions of three-wheelers in Delhi, the Malawa Ram Market Association and the Transport Department of Delhi. On October 30, 2004 EPCA also held a meeting with the Bajaj Auto to discuss the technical issues in their three-wheelers. Based on the discussions, in response to the Hon’ble Supreme Court Order Dated October 8, 2004, (I.A. 217 of 2003), EPCA has submitted its report "Report on the increase in the number of three-wheelers in Delhi, November 2004":

    Implementation of Action Plan in Critically Polluted Cities

    In response to the orders of the Hon’ble Court, the EPCA had submitted the report – "Final Report on Particulate Pollution Reduction Strategy in Seven Critically Polluted Cities" on January 2004. This included the final action plans of the seven cities that have outlined the common minimum programme, which have been agreed upon between the respective state governments and EPCA along with the recommendations wherever necessary. The key concern of the Authority in this regard has been to ensure firm and well-defined actions with a tight schedule for implementation and clarity of responsibility and accountability of the implementing agencies.

    Since the submissions of the action plans for control of RSPM in critically polluted cities, EPCA has been monitoring the progress and status of the action plans. For effective monitoring EPCA has begun to organise discussions with the concerned state governments and visit the concerned cities. EPCA members also visited Lucknow on June 11, 2004. and submitted special report to to the Hon’ble Supreme Court in July 2004.

    Expansion of the CNG programme in the NCR towns

    Delhi’s Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) programme, which was implemented under the directions of the Hon’ble Supreme Court, has become a role model for Asian cities, which are looking for options to reduce air pollution. Since its inception the programme has expanded and evolved. Today, with 122 CNG stations and roughly 90,000 CNG vehicles, it is one of the largest programmes in the region. The average CNG sales are to the tune of 8.02-lakh kg/day. However, the CNG infrastructure is restricted only to the National Capital Territory of Delhi and does not extend to the neighbouring towns, in spite of increasing pollution imperatives.

    Currently, the neighbouring towns like Faridabad, Gurgaon, Noida and Greater Noida are unable to capitalise on this existing infrastructure. As CNG is not available in these towns, it also becomes very difficult for smoother flow of vehicles across the region. It is also important that benefits of the cleaner fuels should also be made available to the towns in the National Capital Region (NCR) of Delhi.

    EPCA began its discussions with IGL on the expansion of the CNG programme in December 2002. In this context EPCA have held various meetings with both IGL and Gas Authority of India Limited (GAIL) to assess their plans for expanding the CNG network in the country in general and NCR towns in specific. While IGL is working to implement the city gas distribution projects in the NCR towns of Faridabad, Gurgaon, Noida and Greater Noida, GAIL is actively pursuing its projects in Kanpur and Pune, among other cities. On requests of the EPCA, IGL has also plans for including Ghaziabad in the CNG expansion programme. However, for timely and successful implementation of the programme, the EPCA has sought directions from the Hon’ble Supreme Court vide its report submitted in December 2004.

    14.8 POLLUTION FROM GENERATOR SETS

    Inspection of Genset Manufacturing Facilities for Petrol/Kerosene Genset

    The Central Pollution Control Board officials visited ITBP, Joshimath and ITBP, Gaucher to inspect the petrol/kerosene gensets supplied by M/s Birla Power Solutions Ltd. (M/s BPSL) and also the manufacturing plant of M/s BPSL at Dehradun, during 6th -9th July, 2004. Based on the findings, the action has been initiated

    Inspection of Manufacturing Facilities for Diesel Genset

    The Central Pollution Control Board officials inspected diesel genset manufacturing facilities, in and around Delhi and also at Silvassa and Daman during January-February, 2005 (Table 14.6). The team observed that the manufacturers were supplying non-compliant gensets to the customers. The actions have been initiated against Diesel Genset Manufacturers..

    Table 14.6 Diesel Genset Manufacturing Facilities – Inspection and Activities

    S.No

    Genset Manufacturers

    Date of inspection

    Action Initiated

    1.

    M/s Sudhir Gensets Ltd.

    Gurgaon

    24.1.2005

    -

    2.

    M/s Bhaskar Power Projects Ltd. Noida

    25.1.2005

    -

    3.

    M/s TIL Ltd.

    Ghaziabad

    27.1.2005

    -

    4.

    M/s Newage Generators

    Delhi

    27.1.2005

    Issued notice under Section 5 of E(P)Act

    5.

    M/s Jakson & Company

    Delhi

    28.1.2005

    Issued notice under Section 5 of E(P)Act

    6.

    M/s Jakson Ltd.

    Daman

    14.2.2005

    Issued notice under Section 5 of E(P)Act

    7.

    M/s Ankitech Ltd.

    Daman (A group Co. of

    Jakson & Co)

    15.2.2005

    Issued notice under Section 5 of E(P) Act with immediate effect

    8.

    M/s Bhaskar Power Projects Ltd., Unit No,1

    Daman

    15.2.2005

    Issued notice under Section 5 of E(P)Act

    9.

    M/s Supernova Engineers Ltd. Silvassa

    16.2.2005

    Issued notice under Section 5 of E(P)Act

    10.

    M/s Deev Genset Sales & Services, Silvassa

    16.2.2005

    Issued notice under Section 5 of E(P)Act

    Meetings of Standing Committee for Emission from RIC Engines

    The 6th Meeting of the "Standing Committee for Emission from RIC engines for Off-Road Application" was held on 16.4.2004. The Committee monitored the compliance status of emission limits for petrol/kerosene generator sets and also diesel engines for genset application. A Sub-Committee was also constituted to initiate work on development of emission limits for gas based generator sets and also to review the ‘System & Procedure for Compliance with emission limits for pertrol/kerosene generator sets".

    14.9 DECENTRALISED TREATMENT SYSTEMS

    A joint project was initiated to install Decentralised Treatment System (DTS) at Beedi Workers Colony, Kengeri, Bangalore for 200 flats (36 m3/day flow). The system is jointly financed by Central Pollution Control Board, Rajeev Gandhi Housing Corporation Govt. of Karnataka, BORDA (a German NGO rendering DEWATS services) and the Beedi Workers’ Association. Provision of two Biodigesters, Baffle reactor system and planted gravel filter have been envisaged based on the finalised design. The project is likely to be completed by June, 2005.

    14.10 EXPERT COMMITTEE FOR PREPARING ACTION PLAN FOR MANAGEMENT OF SILT AND ADVISE ON OTHER OTHER RELEVANT ISSUES WITH RESPECT TO BSL HYDEL PROJECT PERTAINING TO BHAKRA BEAS MANAGEMENT BOARD (BBMB) IN THE MATTER OF BBMB VS HIMACHAL PRADESH STATE POLLUTION CONTROL BOARD(HPSPCB), WRIT PETITION NO 777/ 03

    Hon’ble High Court of Himachal Pradesh, in the matter of BBMB vs Himachal Pradesh State Pollution Control Board (HPSPCB), writ petition no 777/ 03, dated 24/03/2004, directed to the Ministry of Environment & Forests (MoEF) and Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) to examine the gamut of the entire issue in its total and true perspective and in close rapport and coordination with everyone concerned and involved, including the petitioner (BBMB) and respondents (HP State Government & HPSPCB) and thereafter to submit a comprehensive proposed plan of action on the next date i.e. May 24, 2004.

    In order to comply with the directions of the Hon’ble High Court, the Central Pollution Control Board in consultation with the Ministry of Environment & Forests (MoEF) constituted an Expert Committee under the Chairmanship of Sh. Paritosh C. Tyagi, Ex.Chairman, Central Pollution Control Board for preparing action plan for management of silt and advise on other other relevant issues with respect to BSL hydel project pertaining to Bhakra Beas Management Board (BBMB). The Committee in its final report had suggested action plan as below for management of silt in BBMB’s project located at Sundernagar, H.P.

    Minimization of Silt

    • To minimize generation of silt in the catchment of river Beas upstream of Pandoh Dam, Catchment Area Treatment (CAT) Plan should be got prepared by the State Govt. The concerned stakeholders like BBMB, HPSEB, NHPC, etc. should share the cost as per the area of the catchment under their projects.
    • To minimize entry of silt-load in the Balancing Reservoir through PBT, BBMB should resort to frequent flushing operations at Pandoh Dam in the monsoon season every year, when there is adequate flushing discharge available in the river Beas.
    • BBMB should optimize the operation of Silt Ejector at Baggi i.e. 7 cumecs (250 cusecs) during day and 14 cumecs (500 cusecs) during night in the monsoon months to minimize further silt load entry into the Balancing Reservoir.

    Dredging & Disposal of Silt

    • BBMB should restrict the dredging operation in Balancing Reservoir and disposal of silt through Suketi Khad only during monsoon season. In the month of September, dredging should only be resorted to if the flow/discharge in Suketi Khad is more than 7 cumecs (250 cusecs) at Dadaur Bridge. However, BBMB can supplement the shortfall of the flow of 7 cumecs (250 cusecs) during September month from Balancing Reservoir by pumping / siphoning.
    • The existing output dredging capacity available with BBMB is 810 m3/h. BBMB should procure an additional dredger to ensure a flexible and reliable dredging capability during the monsoon period for dredging maximum silt from the Balancing Reservoir.
    • During non-monsoon period, BBMB may dredge & dispose the finer silt through Sundernagar Satluj Tunnel / Dehar Power House i.e. their own water conductor system to river Satluj

    Monitoring Schedule

    BBMB shall strictly monitor flow discharge and Total Suspended Solids (TSS) between June 15 to October 15 every year so as to comfortably cover the entire monsoon period. The monitoring will be conducted at the following locations for 3 to 5 years to have realistic/actual observed data of Suketi Khad & River Beas for analyzing and recommending this option to be a long-term option for silt disposal.

    Flow Measurement

    i. At Dadaur Site on Suketi Khad

    - Hourly gauge and twice-daily flow measurement.

    ii. All other sites of Suketi & Kansa Khad

    - Flow measurement once a day

    iii. River Beas (upstream & downstream)

    - Flow measurement once a day

    TSS Measurement at all locations - Once a day

    Chemical Analysis of Water at all locations - Twice a month

    L-Section of Suketi Khad &

    X-Sections at each identified location

    - Two Times

    • First in May (Pre-monsoon)
    • Second in October (Post-Monsoon)

       

    Pandoh Dam During Flushing Operation     Dredger in BR in Operation

     

         

                      Balancing Reservoir                                           Dehar Power House

     

    14.11 TASK FORCE FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF RECOMMENDATIONS OF CHARTER ON CREP FOR CEMENT AND ASBESTOS BASED INDUSTRIES

    The Task Force for implementation of the CREP recommendations for cement industry has been continued and Task force for asbestos based industries has been constituted under the Chairmanship of Shri Paritosh C. Tyagi with following Terms of Reference.

    Cement Industries

    • To monitor the progress made by industry in implementing the recommendations of CREP.
    • To visit some of the units to verify the compliance of CREP recommendations
    • The Task Force will meet at least once in two months and submit its report to the Steering Committee once in six months.
    • To finalize the load based standard for Cement Industry
    • To finalize SO2/NOx standard for Cement Industry
    • To suggest clean technology and waste management scheme for cement industry.

    Asbestos Industries

    • To assess the progress made in the implementation of emission standards in the asbestos based industries.
    • To take up implementation of environmental standards with the industries and concerned agencies
    • To discuss and share information on environmental management amongst the industries.
    • To review the health effect due to exposure of asbestos fibre from asbestos industries.
    • To standardize the methodology for asbestos sampling and analysis.

    The two meetings of the Task Force were convened and the present status of implementation of recommendations of Charter on CREP for cement industries is presented in Table 14.7.

    Table 14.7 Status of Implementation of Recommendation of Charter on CREP for Cement Industry

    S. No.

    Action Point

    Status

    1.

    Implementation of standards in non-complying Cement Plants as per the following to meet the standards:

    • Augmentation of existing air pollution control devices: by July 2003
    • Replacement of existing air pollution control devices: by July 2004
    • Non complying units shall give bank guarantee to respective SPCBs

    25 cement plants were identified originally as non-compiling. Task Force decided that non-complying units should be visited by a joint team comprising representatives from CMA, SPCB and CPCB. The status is as below.

    • No. of plants visited by the team –19

    (1 plant found not complying)

    • No. of plants to be visited by the team- 5

    • No.of plant closed - 1

    2.

    Cement Plants located in critically polluted or urban areas (including 5 km distance outside urban boundary) will meet 100-mg/Nm3 limit of particulate matter by December 2004 and continue working to reduce the emission of particulate matter to 50 mg/Nm3.

    • MoEF has been requested to make amendment to the industry specific standards notified under EP Act, 1986.

    • M/s Durgapur Cement Plant is falling under this category. Plant has upgraded the ESP and bag filter and meeting the desired standards.

    3.

    The new cement kilns to be accorded NOC/Environmental Clearance w.e.f. 01.04.2003 will meet the limit of 50 mg/Nm3 for particulate matter emissions.

    The emission standards for new cement kilns is required to be notified under EP Act, 1986.

    4.

    CPCB will evolve load-based standards by December 2003.

     

    In order to evolve load based standards, the specific data files have been designed and data feeding of about 60 questionnaire has been completed.

    5.

    CPCB and NCBM will evolve SO2 and NOx emission standards by June 2004.

    Findings of study were presented by NCBM in 4th NTF meeting held on 21.9.2004. The findings are to be reviewed in light of comments raised by the members.

     

    6.

    Control fugitive emissions from all the raw material and products storage and transfer points by December 2003. the feasibility for the control of fugitive emissions from limestone and coal storage areas will be decided by the National Task Force (NTF). The NTF shall submit its recommendations within three months.

    Following options for fugitive emission control are recommended:

    • Water spraying on raw material and coal storage areas, which are too large to be covered;

    • Setting up covered storage facilities for fly ash and closed belt conveyors for flyash transportation;

    • Paving of all roads within and nearby the plant premises belonging to the plant;

    • Use of water sprinkling at a definite frequency for preventing re-suspension of dust on all the roads. However Vacuum cleaning (by motorised vacuum cleaner) or Dust Free Road Sweepers for all major roads at the plant premises should be preferred.

    7.

    CPCB, NCBM, BIS and Oil refineries will jointly prepare the policy on use of petroleum coke as fuel in cement kiln by July 2003.

     

    • CPCB has prepared an Environmental policy for use of high calorific value hazardous waste including petroleum coke as fuel in cement kiln.

    • Two meetings held involving SPCBs, CMA, NCBM, Env. Labs, Waste Generators and Cement Industries. Monitoring protocol developed for trial run.

    8.

    NTF will decide feasible unit operations/sections for installation of continuous monitoring equipment. The industry will install the continuous monitoring systems (CMS) by December 2003.

     

    CMA informed that cement industries need sufficient time (2 years) to gain confidence in CMS.

    9.

    Trippings in kiln ESP to be minimized by July 2003 as per the recommendation of NTF

     

    The Task Force recommended the following to minimise the ESP tripping.

    • Pre-blending system for coal should be adopted to get uniform coal quality

    • Installation of state-of-the-art distributed control logic system, which reduces the calciner firing, step by step, as CO concentration increases.

    • Proper record should be kept of the number of ESP tripping with duration of its non-functioning. (Such record should preferably be automatic.)

    • The availability of ESP should be enhanced as much as possible and up to 98% at least in critical / sensitive areas where population is residing in the vicinity of the plant.

     

    10.

    Industries will submit the target date to enhance the utilization of waste material by April 2003

     

    CMA has submitted the plan for utilization of solid wastes in cement manufacturing. However, plan did not indicate any appreciable enhancement. CMA has to submit the revised plan.

    11.

    NCBM will carry out a study on hazardous waste utilization in cement kiln by December 2003

    MoEF has sponsored a project to NCBM to study hazardous waste utilisation in Cement Kiln.

     

    12.

    Cement industries will carry out feasibility study and submit target dates to CPCB for co-generation of power by July 2003

     

    The installation of such power plants based on waste heat recovery is very expensive and could not compete with conventional power generation. The conversion of heat to electricity is not economical viable. Hence it was decided that co- generation may be dropped from the agreed Action Points.

     

     

    14.12 REPORT ON VISIT TO ASBESTOS MINES AND MILLING UNITS IN RAJASTHAN

    The Central Pollution Control Baord officials visited asbestos mines and milling units in Rajasthan during January 12-16, 2004. A Report was prepared and submitted to the Ministry of Environment and Forests. The various observations and recommendations are given below.

    Asbestos Mining

    • As Ministry of Mines, Govt. of India had decided not to renew or give fresh leases for asbestos mines; most of the mines after expiry of lease are operating with the permission of Hon’ble Court.

    • Tremolite variety of asbestos is mined in Rajasthan , which is covered under amphibole group. Risk of mesothelioma is higher for amphibole than for serpentine (chrysotile).

    • Mining is carried out manually and most of the mines are located in the interior areas. The mining activity is irregular.

    • Vide notification no. GSR 685(E), dated 7.6.1988 the Ministry of Labour prescribed the permissible limit of 2 fibres/cc for airborne asbestos fibre in mining area under Metalliferous Mines Regulations, 1961. The permissible value is quite relaxed.

    • Truck carrying asbestos bearing stone is not covered from top during transportation and fibres may get air borne. No proper approach road is in existence. Even, during visit truck was used to reach at few mines.

    • Asbestos fibre monitoring in mine area is not being carried out.

    • No plantation work has been done around mine area.

    • Over burden/waste is not being managed in an environmentally sound manner.

    • There is no display board in mining area showing the name of the mine and owner. There is no display board showing the hazards associated with asbestos and recommended precautionary measures.

    • Most of the workers are on contract basis and employer is not getting the medical examination of the workers done. Health record not maintained.

    • Workers are not being educated about the risk associated with asbestos dust exposure, potential health effects, etc. Workers are not wearing protective clothing and respiratory equipment (except at few places where respiratory equipment were given for name shake).

    • During the inspection most of the lessees have not operated the mines at full production capacity.

    • Most of the asbestos mines are operating without consent of the Rajasthan State Pollution Control Board.

    Recommendations

    • Tremolite variety of asbestos is mined in Rajasthan, which is covered under amphibole group. Because, high risk of mesothelioma is associated with amphibole, its mining should be discontinued. By the time above mentioned recommendation is accepted and implemented, following measures are required to be taken.

    • As asbestos is carcinogenic, therefore, possibilities of mechanized mining may be explored to reduce the risk of exposure.

    • Dust generated by drilling operations should be controlled by extraction equipment to be mounted on the drills.

    • Dust emissions from blasting should be minimized by optimum use of explosive material and multiple small blasts rather than one large blast.

    • The permissible level of asbestos fibre in air for mines prescribed under Metalliferous Mines Regulations, 1961 requires revision at par with International norms.

    • Over burden/waste is to be managed in an environmentally sound manner.

    • Mine owners should carry out asbestos fibre monitoring in mine area as prescribed in Metalliferous Mines Regulations, 1961.

    • During transportation of asbestos bearing stone, truck should be covered from top to reduce the possibilities of asbestos fibres getting air borne.

    • Proper land reclamation plan should be prepared and green belt should be developed around mine area.

    • Proper approach road should be constructed to reach mine area. Water should be sprayed on the roads to suppress the dust during vehicle movement.

    • According to Indian Standard IS:11451-1986 (Recommendations for safety and health requirements relating to occupational exposure to asbestos), All the workers should be provided with medical surveillance by the employer. Medical surveillance programme should consist of the following:

    • Pre- employment medical surveillance
    • Periodic medical examination
    • Medical examination at cessation of employment
    • Maintenance of medical records; and
    • Health education

    • Medical examination record should be maintained and stored for a period of 10 years following the termination of employment, or for 40 years after first day of employment, whichever is later.

    • In order to comply the recommendations contained in IS:11451-1986, employer should stop existing practice of employment of temporary, contract workers or daily wage workers.

    • Workers should be given education about the risk associated with asbestos dust exposure, potential health effects, etc. Workers likely to get exposed to asbestos should wear protective clothing and respiratory equipment.

    • Display board should be provided in mine area showing the name of mine owner and the hazards associated with asbestos and recommended precautionary measures.

    • Asbestos mines should obtain consent under the relevant Act from the Rajasthan State Pollution Control Board.

    Asbestos Milling

    • Tremolite variety of asbestos is grinded in Rajasthan, which is covered under amphibole group. Risk of mesothelioma is higher for amphibole than for serpentine (chrysotile).

    • Crushing and grinding are inherently dusty operations. Workers are likely to get exposed to asbestos fibres generated from various operations as described in previous paragraph. The dust control measures adopted by the milling units are not adequate. There is a lack of commitment on the part of management. In fact management do not have technical competence to handle asbestos with due care.

    • Asbestos is carcinogenic but innocent workers in the milling units handle asbestos bearing stone as a simple stone.

    • The belt conveyors are not covered and asbestos fibre may get air borne.

    • Bag filter do not have proper metallic case and stack, therefore, the flue gases (arising from pneumatic conveying of asbestos powder) are likely to get disperse at work environment.

    • Sometimes bags are punctured which causes spillage of asbestos fibre.

    • The asbestos powder (fine) collected from bag filter hopper is a by product/waste. Most of the entrepreneurs informed that it is also sold but at a lower price.

    • The house keeping of the milling units is very poor. Asbestos powder was lying on the floor.

    • The milling units are not carrying out asbestos fibre monitoring.

    • Generally plantation work has not been done in the milling units.

    • During the inspection entrepreneurs have not operated milling units at full production capacity.

    • Most of the workers are on contract basis and employer is not getting the medical examination of the workers done. Health record not maintained. Workers are not being educated about the risk associated with asbestos dust exposure, potential health effects, etc.

    • Workers are not wearing protective clothing and respiratory equipment (except at few places where respiratory equipment were given for name sake).

    • There is no display board showing the hazards associated with asbestos and recommended precautionary measures.

    • Some milling units are operating without consent of the Rajasthan State Pollution Control Board.

    Recommendations

    • Because high risk of mesothelioma is associated with amphibole, its milling should be discontinued. By the time above mentioned recommendation is implemented, following measures are required to be taken.

    • Preferably complete plant machinery requires to be redesigned with proper engineering controls to reduce asbestos fibre emission.

    • Manual handling of asbestos should be reduced to minimum.

    • Fugitive emissions generated from hopper of Jaw Crusher and Pulveriser may be channellised through hood with proper suction arrangement, bag filter and stack.

    • Provision of a valve should be made to regulate the filling of asbestos powder from the hopper of cyclone and bag filter. This will reduce the spillage and emission of asbestos fibre.

    • Asbestos bearing stone should be stored in a storage yard having three sides and top covered to reduce the possibility of asbestos fibre getting airborne.

    • All belt conveyors (if any) should be totally enclosed. The enclosure should be hinge type for easy inspection and maintenance. Where practicable, the return belt should also be enclosed.

    • Chutes (if any) which feed material to belt conveyor should be enclosed. All material transfer point should be connected to dust extraction system.

    • Enclosed belt conveyors should be used instead of manual transportation of asbestos within the premises.

    • Leakages of dust from machines and ducts should be plugged.

    • Proper metallic case may be provided for bag filter with stack for dispersion of pollutant.

    • Wherever material is to be unloaded, the drop height may be minimized to reduce the fugitive emission.

    • Floor should be cleaned by vaccum cleaner only.

    • House keeping has lot of scope for improvement.

    • Asbestos fibre monitoring should be carried out by entrepreneurs and data should be submitted to SPCB/CPCB.

    • As process of milling is dusty, therefore, material should be handled carefully to prevent release of asbestos fibre into the work environment.

    • According to Indian Standard IS:11451-1986 (Recommendations for safety and health requirements relating to occupational exposure to asbestos), All the workers should be provided with medical surveillance by the employer. Medical surveillance programme should consist of the following:

    • Pre- employment medical surveillance
    • Periodic medical examination
    • Medical examination at cessation of employment
    • Maintenance of medical records; and
    • Health education

    • Medical examination record should be maintained and stored for a period of 10 years following the termination of employment, or for 40 years after first day of employment, whichever is later.

    • In order to comply the recommendations contained in IS:11451-1986, employer should stop existing practice of employment of temporary, contract workers or daily wage workers.

    • Workers should be given education about the risk associated with asbestos dust exposure, potential health effects, etc.

    • Workers likely to get exposed to asbestos should wear protective clothing and respiratory equipment.

    • Display board should be provided showing the hazards associated with asbestos and recommended precautionary measures.

    • Asbestos milling units should obtain consent under the relevant Act from the Rajasthan State Pollution Control Board.

    • Rajasthan State Pollution Control Board should carry out inventory of all asbestos milling units.

    14.13 ECOCITY PROGRAMME

    The EcoCity Programme has been conceptualized for improving environment and achieving sustainable development through a comprehensive urban improvement system employing practical, innovative and non-conventional solutions. The EcoCity Programme was initiated under the 10th plan to bring in visible environmental improvement in the small and medium towns. The following towns have been taken under first phase of EcoCity programme to bring in visible environmental improvement:

    1. Vrindavan (Uttar Pradesh)
    2. Tirupati (Andhra Pradesh)
    3. Puri (Orissa)
    4. Ujjain (Madhya Pradesh)
    5. Kottayam (Kerala)
    6. Thanjavour (Tamil Nadu)

    Funds will be provided to the Municipalities by CPCB for the identified project, on 50:50 cost-sharing basis up to a maximum of Rs. 2.5 Crore per town, wherein 50% of the total budget should come from Municipalities either from their own funds or through financial institutions or any other means.

    An Expert Committee has been constituted by CPCB for the identification of the projects and approval of Environmental Development Plan (EDP) and Detailed Project Reports (DPRs). GTZ-ASEM is providing support in terms of engaging consultants for the preparation of the DPRs for the identified activities/design of decentralized treatment systems/conducting feasibility studies etc. The town wise status of work is given below:

    Vrindavan

    The project in Vrindavan aims at environmental improvement of the Ecozone in Vrindavan. The ‘Environmental Development Plan’ (EDP) for Vrindavan has been prepared by IIT Kharagpur, engaged by GTZ-ASEM which is finalized and approved by the Expert Committee of CPCB . The report documents the existing situation of the Ecozone of Vrindavan and identifies the projects that can be taken under the EcoCity Project.

    Based on the EDP report, projects/activities like comprehensive improvement along the roads connecting all major pilgrim/tourist spots viz Ranganathji Temple, Banke Bihari Temple, a 2 km stretch of Parikrama Path from Kesighat to Kaliyadaha Ghat have been identified for which DPRs will be prepared/under preparation.

    Tirupati

    The EcoCity project in Tirupati is to bring the Environmental Improvement around the Govind Raja Swamy temple, which is also the core area of the town. The report on ‘Environmental Development Plan’ for the core area around Govindrajaswamy Temple has been prepared by SPA, JNTU, Hyderabad, engaged by GTZ-ASEM which is finalized and approved by the Expert Committee of CPCB.

    Based on the EDP report, following projects/activities like providing public drinking water facilities, providing public toilets at appropriate locations in the core area, connecting Konneru to Narsimha Thirtha by pipeline to replenish water, flower beds, ornamental landscaping etc have been identified for implementation. DPRs for these activities has been prepared/under preparation/will be prepared. The following work is under implementation by the Tirupati Municipality.

    1. "Covering/Improvement of storm water drains on the Northern, Southern and Western side of the Govind Raja Swamy Temple".
    2. Connecting Konneru to Narsimha Thirtha by pipeline to replenish water
    3. Cleaning/desilting of drains in the project area.

    Puri

    The project area of Eco City Puri is around the Jagannath temple. The ‘Environmental Development Plan’ for Puri has been prepared by SPA, New Delhi engaged by GTZ-ASEM which is finalized and approved by the Expert Committee of CPCB The report documents the existing situation of the Puri and identifies the projects that can be taken under the EcoCity Project.

    Some of the identified projects include comprehensive improvement along the roads in an are surrounding the Jaganath Temple up to 100 m, provision of public utilities at appropriate locations, rejuvenation of traditional water bodies at Markendayasahi neighborhood, shifting of Auto Garages from existing location along Grand Road and vicinity of Jagannath temple. The award of work for preparation of DPRs is will be taken once the comments of ASI will be obtained.

    Ujjain

    The project in Ujjain aims at area vide improvement around Mahakal Temple and cleaning of Rudra Sagar Lake. The task on ‘Excavation/Embankment of Rudra Sagar’ in part has been taken up by Ujjain Municipal Corporation (UMC). UMC had submitted the DPRs for ‘Traffic & Transportation’, ‘Sewerage & Drainage’, ‘Laying of water supply for Rudra Sagar’, ‘Underground Electric cabling’ and ‘Plantation & Landscaping’ as apart of the ‘Mahakal Core area Development’. UMC has been asked to revise as per the suggestion provided by CPCB.

    Kottayam

    The project in Kottayam includes activities on ‘Rejuvenation of Mundar River’ and ‘Renovation of Kacherikadavu Boat Jetty Canal’ that have been severely degraded because of siltation, weed growth and disposal of domestic waste. The projects have been approved by Expert Committee of CPCB and are under implementation by the Municipality.

    Thanjavur

    In Thanjavur town, the activity on ‘Renovation of old tanks’ has been proposed to be taken up to protect presently used and potentially useable aquifers from further degradation and to facilitates the rainwater harvesting system. The commitment for bearing the 50 % costs and the DPRs from the Municipality is awaited.

    Eco Industrial Estate

    CPCB has contemplated to develop the upcoming Special Economic Zone, Vishakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh as eco industrial estate. The implementation work is to be taken up by Andhra Pradesh Industrial Infrastructure Corporation Ltd. (APIIC). Two existing industrial estates (Industrial Development area, Nacharam and Industrial Development area, Mallapur) have also taken up under this programme to improve the industrial ecology. A national level workshop was organized on September 29, 2004 to discuss the strategy to be adopted for development of eco industrial estate. A 5-days hands-on training for officials of APIIC was organized by CPCB on ‘Zoning Atlas for siting of industries/ industrial estates’ and ‘use of GIS systems in spatial planning’ in December 2004.

    Urban Environmental Information System

    Under Urban ENVIS programme, CPCB had identified nine towns that are Agartala, Agra, Bhubneshwar, Chennai, Guntur, Indore, Kanpur, Kottayam and Patna for the preparations of local environmental report through respective municipalities. The work is progressing well in case of Bhubneshwar, Chennai and Indore and are under preparation for Kottayam. Apart the EcoCity towns are also being covered under Urban ENVIS Programme. The data is being collected and complied. ‘Environmental Profile’ for Bhubneshwar is under preparation in collaboration with GTZ.

    14.14 SPATIAL ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING

    The Spatial Environmental Planning Programme was conceptualised for ensuring protection of environment and its resources through planned and sustainable development. The Programme commenced in 1995 in 14 volunteering states with district-wise environmental assessments for siting of industries. The Programme was extended under the Environmental Management Capacity Building Technical Assistance Project funded by the World Bank, during April 1997 to June 2003. Having streamlined methodologies/concepts, completed a number of studies, built the basic technical competencies and the needed infrastructure to undertake spatial environmental planning tasks within the State Pollution Control Boards and other executing agencies, the programme has been extended beyond June 30, 2003 until the end of the X Plan period with the grants-in-aid from the Ministry of Environment & Forests, Govt. of India.

    The criteria for preparation of Zoning Atlas Programme were revised to ensure the usage of results. The revised criteria were discussed and generally agreed in the 50th Conference of Chairmen and Member Secretaries of Pollution Control Boards/Committees held on March 8-9, 2004 at Delhi. In the same Conference decision were taken to take up the following activities under Spatial Environmental Programme.

    • State Environmental Atlas
    • District Environmental Atlas
    • State Level Industrial Siting Guidelines
    • District Wise Zoning Atlas for Siting of Industries
    • District Specific Industrial Siting guidelines

    All State Pollution Control Boards/Executing Agencies participating in the programme agreed to undertake the above activities. Details of activities are given below.

    State Environmental Atlas

    The State Environmental Atlas is a compilation of environment related information in the form of maps, texts and statistical data. It includes maps on general features (i.e. administrative boundaries, major settlements, transportation networks etc), on physical characteristics (i.e. land use, physiography, land capability etc), on surface/ground water features (i.e. drainage pattern, use, quality, flow and table etc), on environmentally sensitive zones (i.e. biological diversity, incompatible land uses etc), on major sources of pollution and also on environmental quality. The maps of the atlas will be in the scale of 1:1 million or 1:2 million or as appropriate as per the size of the State. Reports for the following States have been received at CPCB and under finalisation.

    1. Andhra Pradesh

    1. Madhya Pradesh

    1. Bihar

    1. Orissa

    1. Gujarat

    1. Tamil Nadu

    1. Himachal Pradesh
     

    The Atlas for the following States are under preparation and likely to be completed by March 2006.

    Assam

    Tripura

    Chhattisgarh

    West Bengal

    Kerala

    Goa

    Maharashtra

    Nagaland

    Meghalaya

    Uttranchal

    Punjab

    Rajasthan

    State Level Industrial Siting Guidelines

    The State level industrial siting guideline will clearly bring out the areas to be avoided and the rules/norms/procedures to be followed to obtain consent to establish. After completion of State Environmental Atlas, State level industrial siting guidelines will be formulated. For the State of Madhya Pradesh draft report has been received and under finalisation at CPCB.

    District Environmental Atlas

    The District Environmental Atlas is a compilation of environment related information in the form of maps, texts and statistical data. It includes maps on general/physical features, surface/ground water features, environmentally sensitive zones and major source of pollution and on environmental quality. The scale of the atlas will be 1:2,50,000. The District Environmental Atlases are being used to develop the Zoning Atlas. District Environmental Atlases for the following Districts have been received and under finalisation at CPCB.

     

    1. Kamrup Metro

    1. Puri

    1. Chittoor,

    1. Kamrup

    1. Mayurbhanj

    1. Srikakulam

    1. Goalpara

    1. Kendujhar

    1. Kota

    1. Patna

    1. Bardhhaman

    1. Baran

    1. Saran

    1. Hoogly

    1. Alwar

    1. Vaishali

    1. Pune

    1. Sirmaour

    1. Ara

    1. Coimbatore

    1. Una

    1. Indore

    1. Thoodikodi

    1. Bilaspur

    1. Dhar

    1. Vellore

    1. Kullu

    1. Raisen

    1. Thiruvallur

    1. Kangra

    1. Sundargarh

    1. Kanchipurum

    1. Solan

    1. Sambalpur

    1. Rangareddy

    1. Valsad

    1. Jharsuguda

    1. Nellore

    1. Navsari

    1. Baragarh

    1. Vizianagaram

    1. Barauch

    1. Kendrapara

    1. Ananthpur

    1. Narmada

    1. Deogarh

    1. Guntur

    1. Vadodara

    1. Cuttack

    1. Kurnool

    1. Ahmedabad

    1. Jajpur

    1. Prakasam
     

    1. Jagatsingpur

    1. West Godavari
     

    District Wise Zoning Atlas for Siting of Industries

    The district-level Zoning Atlas for Siting of Industries interrelates the sensitivity of environment with the pollution potential of industries so as to identify sites with minimal environmental impacts/risks. The existing criteria for the preparation of district wise Zoning Atlas for Siting of Industries has been revised. The Zoning Atlas report will be used only for official purposes to develop district-specific industrial siting guidelines. Report for the following Districts have been received at CPCB and are under finalisation.

    Indore

    Rangareddy

    Dhar

    Vizianagaram

    Raisen

    Guntur

    Coimbatore

    Thiruvallur

    Thoodikodi

    Kanchipurum

    Vellore

    District Specific Industrial Siting Guidelines

    The district level siting guidelines, clearly bring out information on environmentally sensitive zones/areas to be avoided for location of industries or carrying of process or operations, industries or carrying of processes or operations to be restricted in the district, potential zones for siting of air and water polluting industries and industries or carrying of process or operations that may be considered for siting anywhere in the district, other than ‘Environmentally sensitive zones/areas to be avoided’ for priority districts. This will be an instrument for implementing the district level Zoning Atlas for Siting of Industries. These guidelines once completed are to be published after undertaking stakeholder consultations. The district level Zoning Atlas for Siting of Industries will be used to develop these guidelines. Report for the following Districts have been received at CPCB and are under finalisation.

    Indore,

    Thoodikodi,

    Dhar,

    Vellore

    Raisen,

    Kanchipurum

    Coimbatore


    14.15 MISCELLANEOUS ACTIVITIES

    Shifting of North Zonal Office of Central Pollution Control Board

    The Central Pollution Control Board North Zonal Office, while at Kanpur was facing difficulties in respect of coordination with various concerned organizations in the northern zone. The matter was under discussion at various levels at CPCB and in the MoEF and ultimately it was decided to shift the Zonal Office and its laboratory from Kanpur to Lucknow keeping in view the following –

    • Zonal Office will have advantage in availing the latest technologies / laboratory facilities of other institutes such as Industrial Toxicology Research Institute, Lucknow, Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, Central Ground Water Board, Lucknow and Geological Survey of India etc.

    • Most of Central and State government’s head offices of the region are located in Lucknow. Better coordination may be maintained with the Dept. of Environment, Govt. of Uttar Pradesh and expeditious decisions in matters related with the Secretariat – Govt. of Uttar Pradesh.

    • The power situation at Lucknow is much better as compared to Kanpur facilitating smooth and regular operation of the laboratory equipments and computers.

    • All states of the existing jurisdiction are well connected from Lucknow as compared to Kanpur by trains. Apart from this, air connection is only from Lucknow and not from Kanpur.

    As per the directions of the government, entire office including the laboratory was shifted from Kanpur to Lucknow during September 2004

    Development of Central Pollution Control Board North Zonal Office at PICUP Bhawan Lucknow.

    The Central Pollution Control Board has purchased 2 floors (Ground and first floor) at PICUP Bhawan , Gomti Nagar, Lucknow . The dimensions of the are as follows

    Floor

    Super Plinth Area

    Sq. metres

    Plinth Area

    Sq. metres

    Ground Floor

    1170.334

    994.80

    First Floor

    1213.362

    1031.36

    Total

    2383.696

    2026.16

    CPWD has been consulted for developmental work pertaining to the office infrastructure on ground floor and North Zoanl Laboratory at First Floor. To maintain minimum required infrastructure facilities the following activities were undertaken.

    • The new premises was lying closed since last more than 10 years. To bring the new premises into proper working shape and establish the facilities following tasks were undertaken and completed within a record short period of time.

    • Cleaning including white washing & Sign Boards
    • Electricity and telephone / FAX connections
    • Restoration of Water Supply
    • Installation of Computers, LAN and Internet,
    • Set-up of Laboratory facilities for requisite parameters
    • Termites treatment at both floors.

    • The lay-out plans for ground floor (Incharge, Officers, Admn., Training hall, Library, Computer Room & future expansion) and F/F (Complete laby. set-up) have been prepared, keeping in view the Vastu Shastra, ventilation, sunlight and security aspects.

    • In the laboratory design, separate rooms are provided for Air laboratory, Conditioning Room, HVS/ RDS room, Fresh water lab., Waste water Lab., Microbiological lab., Toxicological lab., Hot room , Digestion chambers, Calibration room, Instrumentation lab., AOX Room, GC Room, BTX Room, AAS Room, Maintenance room, glass ware washing room, distilled water room, record room, sample receiving room, laboratory Incharge room, staff sitting room etc.

     


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