PRESENT STATE OF ENVIRONMENT, ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS AND COUNTER MEASURES


6.1 AMBIENT AIR MONITORING AT SELECTED LOCATIONS

Vadodara

The Central Pollution Control Board is carrying out Ambient Air Quality Monitoring on the roof of the Western Zonal Laboratory, Vadodara, regularly for the parameters RSPM, SO2 and NO2. The monthly trend during year 2003-2004 is presented in Table 6.1 and Fig 6.1.

The measured value of SO2 was ranging between 4.0 µg/m3 and 154 µg/m3. The reasons for low value of SO2 may be attributed to lower residence time, high reactivity and primarily Hydrogen ion (OH) are oxidizing SO2 in presence of Sunlight.

The concentration of NO2 in the atmosphere was ranging between 9.0 µg/m3 to 122 µg/m3. The average Respirable Suspended Particulate Matter (RSPM) varied between 17 µg/m3 in rainy season to 135 µg/m3 in winter season. However, peak value, 428 µg/m3 was observed in the month of October, the period of festival in Vadodara, Gujarat.

Table 6.1 Ambient Air Quality (µg/m3) at Subhanpura, Vadodara (2003-2004)

Month

RSPM

SO2

NO2

Min

Max

Avg.

Min

Max

Avg.

Min

Max

Avg.

April

33

145

81

4.0

25

7.9

9.0

57

26.3

May

20

151

63

4.0

60

7.8

9.0

30

17.0

June

8

96

39

4.0

4

4.0

9.0

30

15.6

July

4

28

17

4.0

4

4.0

9.0

65

16.6

August

3

55

22

4.0

7

6.1

9.0

10

9.0

September

8

80

38

4.0

4

4.0

9.0

39

17.0

October

32

428

114

4.0

17

4.3

9.0

75

35.7

November

43

193

135

4.0

4

4.0

9.0

105

53.6

December

63

244

117

4.0

4

4.0

20.8

122

59.5

January

39

273

109

6.0

72

17.3

18.7

111

48.5

February

36

239

124

6.0

154

36.1

21.0

114

54.2

March

8

189

107

6.0

77

18.8

13.5

93

45.3

Air Quality Standards

100

80

80

 


 

Kolkata

Regular monitoring of ambient air quality is being carried out at `Hazra more' in Kolkata by Central Pollution Control Board to assess ambient air quality status. The air quality data was statistically processed to estimate maximum, minimum and average concentration for RSPM, SO2 and NO2 for each month. The results (Table 6.2 & Fig 6.2) revealed that significant variation among the months and days. Highest concentration were observed during winter season. However, concentration were within permissible limits during most of times except RSPM in few occasion.

Table 6.2 Ambient Air Quality (mg/m3) at Jatin Das Park, Kolkata for 2003-04

Month

RSPM

SO2

NO2

Max.

Min.

Avg.

Max.

Min.

Avg.

Max.

Min.

Avg.

April

259

45

80.47

18

BDL

4.53

93

20

44.97

May

185

45

68.36

4

BDL

2.24

80

31

49.09

June

147

41

77.70

8

BDL

2.47

91

35

53.77

July

126

32

75.96

5

BDL

2.01

72

19

35.02

August

170

41

115.74

4

BDL

2.54

80

04

47.19

September

302

103

174.11

5

BDL

3.06

80

20

44.24

October

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

November

248

103

178.38

10

BDL

6.46

99

40

66.26

December

370

93

238.88

24

BDL

12

101

31

57.82

January

409.5

99

211.82

16.2

0.6

7.76

96.2

23.2

52.41

February

409.5

39.7

246.32

48.4

0.6

12.46

96.2

14.2

42.48

March

394.7

94

188.63

15.4

2

6.30

67

27

45.83

 

Kanpur

Regular monitoring of SO2, NO2 and RSPM is being conducted round the clock at Vikas Nagar, Kanpur. Monthly average of RSPM and NO2 for April 2003 - March 2004 are presented in Fig 6.3.

SO2 was observed very low throughout the year and is not at all of any concern. NO2 concentration ranges from 15µg/m3 to 38 µg/m3 which is much lower than the prescribed standards i.e. 80 µg/m3 (24 hr Basis). RSPM concentration was observed very high as compared to prescribed standards ie.100 µg/m3 (24 hr average) throughout the year except during monsoon months. Both RSPM and NO2 are high during 2003-2004 compared to year 2002-2003 at Vikas Nagar. This is mainly due to advanced human activities and digging of roads and construction activities in the nearby area.

Air Quality at Kanpur During Deepawali festival 2003

During Deepawali, five ambient air quality-monitoring stations were setup, where continuously for four days monitoring was conducted. RSPM values far exceed the prescribed norms (Fig 6.4) clearly indicating significant impact on the air quality. SO2 values (Fig 6.5) though well within the prescribed norms, were 3 to 4 times the values observed during other days. The NOx values (Fig 6.6), which in general in Kanpur are always within prescribed norms, have gone beyond the norms on 2 occasions clearly reflecting the impact of firing of crackers on Deepawali.

Monitoring of Ozone at Sharda Nagar, Kanpur

Ozone (O3) is the major photochemical oxidant. In the lower atmosphere this gas is very dangerous to living species. Monitoring of ozone is required to generate data for the formulation of strategy to prepare guidelines to include ozone as criteria pollutant for ambient air.

Monitoring of ozone was conducted at Sharda Nagar, Kanpur during the month of May and June 2003. Ozone monitoring at two different heights, one at 15 ft. and other at 35 ft., was conducted at the same time, to have an idea of any change of concentration at different heights. The average daily concentration of ozone are presented in Fig 6.7.

Along with ozone, NO2 was also monitored to assess the correlation between the two parameters. The concentration of ozone and NO2 obtained during monitoring are presented in Fig 6.8.

Higher concentration of ozone was observed at a height of 35 feet than at 15 feet. This may be attributed to the fact that in the lower atmosphere there are many sources of emission of NOx, other gases that deplete ozone while at the higher heights these depleting substances are lesser. The light intensity at the roof was higher as it is an open area (ranges from 18,580 to 1,71,000 lux) while at 15 feet it is less due to the shades of building (ranges from 15,725 to 12,8000 lux).

NO2 concentration monitored with ozone concentration showed inverse relationship. This is because presence of NO2 depletes ozone, while at the time of lower concentration of NO2 ozone become stable. There are many factors like light intensity, hydrocarbon reactivity, ratio of hydrocarbon to nitric oxide, presence of light absorbers and meteorological variables that effect the photochemical reactions

Characterization of Respirable Suspended Particulate Matter (RSPM) in Ambient Air of Kanpur

Due to the presence of heavy Vehicular load and loose soil in the most of the Indian cities, RSPM concentrations are very high. This is the reason RSPM has become the matter of concern in our country. Characterisation of RSPM is required to identify the constitution of dust contributing to RSPM, which may be helpful in formulating the control strategy for its control. For this purpose Central Pollution Control Board has started some analysis for the characterisation of RSPM. Benzene soluble fractions, Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons and anion are the parameters, which are decided to analyse at primary stage. Analyses of Benzene Soluble Fractions and anions have been started while PAH analysis is under process.

GF/A Filter Papers obtained during the monitoring at Vikas Nagar, Kanpur are used for the analysis of Benzene Soluble Fractions in the RSPM. Organic part of the total RSPM are obtained in this analysis (Table 6.3). The contribution of organic substances of RSPM ranges from 3% to 22% during winter month. This primary contributes by various anthropogenic activities like combustion. Inorganic component dominates the RSPM indicating that loose soil is the grey area for concern. The fraction of organic component is obtained from the burning of fuel.

Table 6.3 Benzene Soluble Fraction in RSPM in
Ambient air of Kanpur
Date Benzene Soluble Fraction(%)
02-03/01/04
15
05-06/01/04 14
06-07/01/04 17
07-08/01/04 8
08-09/01/04 16
09-10/01/04 13
12-13/01/04 18
13-14/01/04 22
15-16/01/04 7
16-17/01/04 3
19-20/01/04 2
05-06/2/04 4
9-10/02/04 6
10-11/02/04 12
11-12/02/04 5
12-13/02/04 4
13-14/02/04 5
16-17/02/04 9
17-18/02/04 6
23/24/02/04 4
24-25/02/04 9
03-04/03/04 6
08-09/03/04 5

GF/A Filter Papers obtained during the monitoring at Gol Chouraha, Ghantaghar, Civil Lines and Ramadevi, Kanpur (sampling period April 2001-March2003) were used for the analysis of anions. Anions have been analyzed using Ion Chromatograph, at IIT, Kanpur). Mainly Chloride, Nitrate, Fluoride and Sulphate ions were found at all the four locations.

Among all the four anions (Fig 6.9) sulphate and chloride anion were found higher at all the four locations. The important reaction of SO2 in the atmosphere is its oxidation to SO3, which with water gives sulfuric acid. The acid or sulphates occur as aerosols. At Civil Lines Sulphate concentration ranges from 4-35µg/m3, at Ghantaghar ranges from 4-43 µg/m3, at Gol chouraha ranges from 3-33 µg/m3 and at Ramadevi it ranges from 4-31 µg/m3. At some points NO3 concentration was found little higher. Fluoride ion concentration was found very less at all the locations.

The maximum concentration of Toluene has been observed as 299 µg/m3. This value is approximately 8 times the normal average concentrations observed in this area of city of Kanpur. The values of Ethyl benzene can be observed as the follower of the toluene values. The reasons as identified in this area for such high concentrations are burning of tyres, wood chullahs, wood in open area in the winter season for heating during evening hours and Continuous use of vehicles at Grand Trunk road.

BTX Monitoring during Deepawali Festival:

During Deepawali festival, continuous BTX analyzer was operated at Sharda Nagar, Kanpur. The daily average values of all the BTX parameters are arranged in the table 6.4.

Table 6.4 Daily Average of BTX in Kanpur

Date

Values are expressed in g/m3

Benzene

Toluene

Ethylbenzene

m+p Xylene

O-Xylene

21.10.03

57.7

(96)*

107

(303)

64

(165)

10

(25)

6

(24)

22.10.03

37.3

(102)

163

(638)

82

(192)

8

(47)

13

(58)

23.10.03

47.5

(188)

192

(707)

111

(406)

8

(36)

10

(34)

24.10.03

29.3

(140)

95

(257.)

59

(150)

7

(77)

10

(49)

25.10.03

Deepawali Day

8.7

(33)

36

(102)

24

(60)

4

(29)

11

(24)

26.10.03

8.3

(37)

39

(147)

26

(93)

5

(51)

13

(32)

27.10.03

7.3

(37)

49

(149)

33

(95)

3

(31)

13

(30)

Values in parenthesis show the peak of the day.

Benzene is a stable compound and stays in the environment for several days. Benzene concentration of the order of 100 µg/m3 remained in the atmosphere on 22nd and concentration of 200 µg/m3 remained on 23rd October evening time. While average concentration of Benzene of this place is measured between 10 to 30 µg/m3. Hence the festival season has increased the pollution nearly ten times. The average levels have increased drastically before Deepawali days but did not increase on and after festival days.

Daily variation of the pollutants shows that the concentration of Toluene increases during evening hours and remains consistent till 2-3 am. The parameters of BTX show that the concentration is not very high on the day of Deepawali rather remained very high on some 2 to 3 days before the occasion. Hence, the traffic activity has to be controlled in a big way so as to avoid traffic jams and should be better controlled on earlier days rather than on the exact day of festival.

Toluene concentration of highest level near 700 µg/m3 remained in the atmosphere on 23rd and on 22nd. While the average concentration of Toluene of this place is measured near to 100 µg/m3. Hence concentration was about seven times in these festival days. Similar trend was seen for Ethyl Benzene and O-Xylene

Agra

The monitoring was initiated in compliance to the direction of the Hon'ble Supreme Court of India in the case of M.C. Mehta Vs. Union Government and Others (with reference to Writ Petition [C] No.13381/1981 related to Taj Pollution Matter). The Project Office at Agra started the monitoring activities in the year 2001 (December) and is continued till date The Varadarajan Committee (constituted by Hon'ble Supreme court in its report of 1995) identified four broad areas/locations for air quality monitoring to meet the objective of the study and present investigation was initiated accordingly at Rambagh, Nunhai (industrial locations), Itmad-ud-daulah (historical monument surrounded by industrial units) and Taj Mahal

The annual variation in the pollutant level viz. SPM, RSPM, NO2 and SO2 as observed in the year 2002 & 2003 is shown in Fig 6.11. Based on annual arithmetic mean for concerned year the Exceedance Factor (EF) has been calculated for each monitored parameter and is depicted in Table 6.5. Additionally, the locations has been categorised as Critical, High, Moderate and Low based on the value of Exceedance Factor in Table 6.6.

Table6.5 Variation in Exceedance Factor (EF) for pollutants in the ambient air at Agra
Location » Taj Mahal

Itmad-ud-daulah

Rambagh

Nunhai

Parameter»/Year»

2002

2003

2002

2003

2002

2003

2002

2003

SPM

5.37

5.12

6.90

6.61

6.67

6.80

9.64

9.31

RSPM

2.94

2.92

3.78

3.86

3.54

3.72

4.77

5.43

NO2

1.43

1.44

1.74

1.78

1.80

1.45

2.18

2.24

SO2

0.32

0.29

0.33

0.30

0.33

0.29

0.33

0.28

Note: Italicised and bold figures indicate reduction in EF in the year 2003

Table6.6 Categorization of locations into Critical, High, Moderate or Low Pollution Area
Location » Taj Mahal Itmad-ud-daulah

Rambagh

Nunhai

ParameterÚ /Year»

2002

2003

2002

2003

2002

2003

2002

2003

SPM

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

RSPM

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

NO2

H

H

C

C

C

H

C

C

SO2

L

L

L

L

L

L

L

L


Note: Critical (C): EF >1.5, High (H): EF 1.0-1.0, Moderate (M): 0.5-1.0 and Low (L): <0.5

During the period (April 2003 to March 2004), the SPM concentration in the ambient air ranged between 74 - 700 µg/m3, 120 - 734 µg/m3, 178 - 777 µg/m3 and 240 - 1026 µg/m3 at Taj Mahal, Itmad-ud-daulah, Rambagh and Nunhai AAQMS respectively. However, annual arithmetic mean at Taj Mahal, Itmad-ud-daulah, Rambagh and Nunhai were recorded to be 343 µg/m3, 461 µg/m3, 477 µg/m3 and 670 µg/m3 respectively. Fig 6.12 shows the monthly variation over the last one year.It is apparent that SPM levels were lower in the month of June, July and August 2003, being a rainy season, invariably at all the locations. On the basis of annual average, the SPM concentration exceeded the permissible limit by five times (at Taj Mahal) to nine and half times (at Nunhai) and little over six and half times both at Itmad-ud-daulah and Rambagh that marks the criticality of the pollutant.

The RSPM concentration in the ambient air ranged between 29 - 218 µg/m3, 46 - 338 µg/m3, 58 - 266 µg/m3 and 62 - 404 µg/m3 at Taj Mahal, Itmad-ud-daulah, Rambagh and Nunhai AAQMS respectively. However, annual arithmetic mean at Taj Mahal, Itmad-ud-daulah, Rambagh and Nunhai were recorded to be 140 µg/m3, 178 µg/m3, 177 µg/m3 and 276 µg/m3 respectively. Fig 6.13 depicts the monthly variation as observed during the last year. Similarly, as in case of SPM, RSPM levels were also lower in the month of June, July and August 2003, being a rainy season, invariably at all the locations. On the basis of annual average, the RSPM concentration exceeded the permissible limit by nearly three times (at Taj Mahal) to five and half times (at Nunhai) and by nearly three and half times both at Itmad-ud-daulah and Rambagh AAQMS.

 

The annual arithmetic mean for NO2 were observed to be 21 µg/m3, 28µg/m3, 24 µg/m3 and 34 µg/m3 with an annual range of 9 - 35 µg/m3, 14 - 44 µg/m3, 15 - 39 µg/m3 and 18 - 50 µg/m3 at Taj Mahal, Itmad-ud-daulah, Rambagh and Nunhai AAQMS respectively. It is observed from Fig 6.14 that the concentration of NO2 in the ambient air goes up in the winter season (Nov and Dec 2003) that could be attributed to stable climate, low temperature and meteorological factors (inversion, mixing height). The full variation in the monthly concentrations of NO2 over the last year can also be observed.

The concentration of Sulphur dioxide in the ambient air was found to well below the permissible limit irrespective of the location and time. It seems that SO2 is no longer a critical pollutant considering the previous year observations (in the year 2002 and 2003). In addition to the above observations, a continuous programme towards the improvement in the field monitoring and analysis have been formulated and implemented successfully. In-house calibration for monitoring instruments is done in a time-bound frame as per the requirement. Various steps have been taken towards assessing the methodological limitations, instrumental efficiencies/limitations and analyst proficiency tests (by replicate analysis). It has been found that availability of weather data (temperature, relative humidity, wind direction and speed) is must for meaningful interpretation of observed data; the same (weather monitoring system) was inducted and is in operation since March 2004. The installation of Sound Detection and Ranging (SODAR) to have more understanding on intricacies of climatic components and pollution levels is in process. On the spot analysis (NO2 & SO2) and ambient air monitoring for Ozone at Taj Mahal AAQMS is underway on experimental basis. An experimental study has been initiated on the possibilities of SPM sampling with RDS 460 Dx at Taj Mahal AAQMS by means of preconditioned dust caps. Combined graph (Fig 6.15) for temperature profile and percentile distribution (PM10 in PM100 in the ambient air) that shows negative correlation.

 

Measurement of Benzene Soluble Organic Fraction (BSOF) in Respirable Suspended Particulate Matter

Benzene Soluble Organic Fraction (BSOF) mainly comprise hundreds of particulate bound organic compounds present in ambient air. Some of the important BSOF compounds include Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), Oxidized Hydrocarbons (aldehydes, ketones, oxyacids etc.) and Dioxins and Furans. Measurement of BSOF gives an idea about the anthropogenic emissions originating from the combustion sources. BSOF is being sporadically measured in RSPM or PM10 at BSZ Marg Traffic Intersection Delhi since year 2001. Preliminary results indicate that BSOF during the winter months were higher ranging from 34 - 70 µg/m3, while the lowest values (16 µg/m3) were observed in monsoon period. Alarmingly high levels of RSPM ranging between 800 - 900 µg/m3 was observed during summer months (May and June 2003), however the BSOF levels in such high concentration of RSPM was found only 3 - 4% of RSPM. This clearly reveals that the high levels of RSPM observed in Delhi is mainly contributed by natural sources such as wind blown dust and re-suspension of soil dust. This was further demonstrated during monsoon period (July 2003) when average RSPM was observed only 67 µg/m3 (perhaps due to wet deposition factor) but the BSOF even at such low levels of RSPM was found quite higher (25%) in comparison to other months (Table 6.7).


Table 6.7 BSOF Levels in RSPM at Bahadurshah Zafar Marg, Delhi

Period

BSOF (g/m3)

RSPM (g/m3)

Percent BSOF in RSPM

December-2001

34

327

11%

January-2002

70

387

20%

December-2002

67

361

17%

January-2003

44

285

12%

May-2003

34

834

4%

June-2003

30

944

3%

July-2003

16

67

25%

Benzene Levels in Ambient Air of Delhi During year 2003 (Passive Method)

The Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) is a collective name for large but heterogeneous group of organic compounds including benzene having a vapor pressure greater than 10-1 mm Hg at 25 0 C and 760 mm Hg. Benzene is a harmful pollutant causing exposure-related health affects in human beings. It is mainly released from anthropogenic activities such as transportation (from vehicles exhaust, filling and evaporative losses), industrial processes, combustion etc.

 

Central Pollution Control Board is continuously monitoring benzene in Delhi using diffusive samplers (passive sampling method) at seven locations namely Ashok Vihar, I.T.O, J.N.U., Moti Nagar, East Arjun Nagar, SiriFort and Town Hall. Minimum, maximum and mean concentration of benzene at different locations of Delhi during year 2003 is presented in Fig 6.16. The mean concentration of benzene ranged between 6 µg/m3 (J.N.U) to 14 µg/m3 (I.T.O). The maximum concentration of 26 µg/ m3 and the minimum concentration of 2 µg/m3 were observed at I.T.O. and J.N. U. respectively.

Benzene Levels during Peak and Lean Traffic Hours in Delhi

Benzene monitoring was conducted during peak traffic hours (between 8am - 10 am and 6 pm - 8 pm) and the lean traffic hours (12 noon - 2 pm and 3 pm - 5 pm) at different locations in Delhi during January 2003.The selected locations were Preet Vihar (petrol pump), CBD CNG filling station near Karkardooma Court complex, ITO (traffic intersection) and Siri Fort. Samples were collected using charcoal tube and Low volume sampler (active sampling method). The collected samples were analysed using CS2 desorption and GC-FID techniques. The concentrations of the Benzene during peak & lean hours of traffic are presented in Fig 6.17.


6.2 POLLUTION ASSESSMENT AT DOMBIVILLI INDUSTRIAL AREA, MAHARASHTRA

§ Storm water drains carries partially treated / untreated industrial effluents to a recipient water body which is a Creek

§ Improper management of effluent drainage network resulting into many breaches, blockages, spillages, etc. and diversion of the same to storm water drains without further treatment at CETPs

§ Effluent treatment capacity at the Estate falling short for 3-4 MLD of effluent generated particularly from Phase-II of estate

§ Three textile units located outside MIDC area (estate) discharge untreated effluents into storm water drains of MIDC

§ Presence of high organic load in two major drains emerging from two Phases of MIDC area - Effluent also colorful & fouling

§ Few units found discharging untreated effluent directly into storm water drains.

§ Air pollution (particularly dust pollution) found rampant, on account of many textile process houses releasing smoky effluent

§ Smell of various chemicals prominent, particularly in Phase-II, on account of emissions of volatile organics

§ RSPM levels have been observed in the range 65-571 µg/m3, SO2 23-293 µg/m3, and NOx 14-84 µg/m3, as per MPCB monitoring during year 2003

§ Problem of air pollution worsened due to the poor road condition and high traffic density on the road adjoining estate

§ Large quantity of waste (mostly containing chemical & textile wastes) dumped haphazardly along the road sides and on a few plots within the estate

§ Most small scale units not having proper on-site storage facility for solid /hazardous wastes because of this

§ Nearest TSDF only at Taloja, which is around 30 km away - Some industries have taken membership of this TSDF for safe disposal - MPCB issued some notices/directions for improvement in hazardous waste management

Based on the studies, it is recommended that MIDC must ensure storm water drains of the Estate free from industrial effluents- Drainage network must be closely monitored & maintained - No effluent collected at intermediate pump houses to be strictly taken to CETP - Treated effluent disposal pipeline work to be expedited to ensure disposal into deep creek. Improve vigilance & checks to prevent illegal dumping of hazardous wastes in MIDC area.

Three textile units in the non-MIDC area facing residential population must expedite taking connection to the MIDC drainage or lay a direct disposal pipeline to keep storm water drains free from these effluents (volume ~ 1MLD) - ETP & ECS needs to be upgraded in order to achieve compliance.

Two units have been found indulged in illegal discharge must augment their ETP and give proper treatment, avoiding bypass of ETP.

Kalyan-Ambernath Manufacturers Association (KAMA) must take up vigorous exercise of lifting industrial wastes dumped within the estate haphazardly and transferring the same to nearby TSDF. Improve vigilance & checks to avoid such illegal dumping. Common effluent treatment capacity in Phase-II needs to be augmented to take care of additional effluent load (3-4 MLD) presently discharged without treatment.

6.3 GROUND WATER QUALITY AROUND COMMON EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT (CETP) & COMMON SECURED LANDFILL SITES (CSLS) IN GUJARAT AND MAHARASHTRA

A study on the groundwater quality were carried out under the project entitled "Studies on Groundwater quality around CETP and CSLS in Gujarat" to assess the pollution potential caused by the CETP & CSLS. In the study, the secured land fill sites located at Vapi, Ankaleshwar, Nandesari and Vatva were covered.

The objective of the study was to assess the contamination of ground water, if any, caused by the CETP and CSLS. The observations are as follows:

Ø There is no inspection well available as per the norms laid in "Criteria for Hazardous Waste Landfills: HAZWAMS/17/2000-01" for measuring Groundwater quality at various depths both at up gradient and down gradient with respect to the direction of flow surrounding the disposal site.

Ø There are only few bore wells bored haphazardly near the sites that too are shallow and dried.

Ø There is no Laboratory facility available at the site for verification of acceptance criteria of incoming wastes from different Industries. Hazardous wastes are randomly disposed by the labours without wearing protective cloth.

6.4 GROUNDWATER QUALITY AROUND COMMON SECURED LAND FILL SITES (CSLS) IN GUJARAT AND MAHARASHTRA

Groundwater and biological samples were collected for analysis around CSLS at Nandesari, Ankleshwar in Gujarat and Taloja, Tarapur in Maharashtra to study contamination trend. It has been derived that Ground water quality around Common Secured Landfill Sites is gradually in the process of deterioration with the time.

Nandesari Industrial area

a) Ground water samples were analyzed in different seasons from three sampling locations within Nandesari industrial area. The colour of the Ground water indicated high contamination near common Secured Land Fill Site at Nandesari GIDC. It suggests that the site is not much safe and secured to prevent contamination

b) Analytical results indicated that pH varied around Nandesari Industrial area between 6.6 and 8.1, whereas Total dissolved solids (TDS) varied between 3192 mg/l and 7633 mg/l around Nandesari Industrial area. Higher TDS encountered through out the year with values exceeding the limit of 500 mg/l.

c) The measured Alkalinity varied between 360 mg/l and 1391 mg/l around Nandesari Industrial area. The chlorides in groundwater in the Nandesari Industrial area varied between 969 mg/l and 2336 mg/l. Phosphate remained in the range of BDL to 0.003 mg/l around the Industrial area.

d) All values of alkalinity were exceeding the limit of 200 mg/l. The values of chloride in the ground water measured around Nandesari industrial estate exceeded the limit of 250 mg/l.

Ankleshwar CSLS area:

· The measured pH values were ranging from 7.0 to 7.9, which were well within the limit of 6.5 - 8.5.

· The measured values of TDS in the groundwater were in the range of 973 mg/l and 2476 mg/l. The analytical results indicate significant contamination by the surface pollutants. The values were exceeding the limits of 500 mg/l at all stations during various sampling rounds
.
· The measured total hardness varied between 312 mg/l and 570 mg/l, whereas, Alkalinity was in the range between 410 mg/l and 880 mg/l indicates that all values were exceeding the limit of 200 mg/l. The reason for high total Hardness and alkalinity in the Ground water may be attributed to the percolation of haphazardly discharged industrial pollutants.

· The measured Chloride ranged between 255 mg/l and as high as 755 mg/l. The chloride concentrations were not within the limit of 250 mg/l except one observation.

· The Sulphate varied between 46 mg/l and 694 mg/l. Higher values were encountered at North East Side bore well Naka, which have exceeded the limit of 250 mg/l.

· Measured values of nitrate varied between BDL and 1.6 mg/l, which indicate that the values were within the limit of 45 mg/l.

· The measured values of fluoride were within the limit of 1.0 mg/l.

· The Calcium varied between 28 mg/l and as high as 191 mg/l, whereas, Magnesium varied between 9 mg/l to 119 mg/l.

Taloja CSLS area:

· The measured pH values in groundwater in this area were ranging between 7.3 to 7.9, which were well within the limits.

· The TDS values were well within the limit of 500 mg/l except one observation, varied from 204 mg/l to 554 mg/l.

· The measured values of total hardness, Calcium and Magnesium were well within the limits of 300mg/l, 75 mg/l and 30 mg/l respectively.

· The measured values of Alkalinity were exceeding during one observation while other values were within the limit of 200 mg/l. The measured values of chloride, Sulphate and nitrate were well within their respective limits.

Tarapur Industrial area

· The pH measured values were ranging from 6.9 to 7.8, while the measured values of TDS at all the locations were exceeding the limit of 500 mg/l except few observations; the values were varying between 308 mg/l to 5008 mg/l.

· The maximum observed values of total hardness, Calcium and Magnesium were exceeding the limit of 300 mg/l, 75 mg/l and 30 mg/l

· The Alkalinity was ranging from 127 mg/l to 520 mg/l and maximum observations were exceeding the limit of 200 mg/l however in case of Chloride, maximum observation were well within the limit of 250 mg/l and ranging between 39 mg/l to 1967 mg/l.


· The Sulphate values were well within the limit of 200 mg/l and all the observed values of Nitrate were well within the limit of 45 mg/l.

6.5 COASTAL POLLUTION ASSESSMENT & STUDIES

Studies on pollution potential from fishing harbours to the coastal waters

Veraval fishing harbour was established in 1986, as an important intermediate Lighter age fair weather port, situated at latitude 20'-54' 40" and longitude 70'-22' 12" E on the South West coast of Saurashtra peninsula facing to open Arabian Sea and nearly 62 miles south of Porbander and 192 miles of North of Bombay. The port is well protected by break water extending 160 ft. in the open sea with fairly deep water of about 8 to 9 fathoms. It was originally designed for operation of 800 fishing vessels. However, a total of about 3500 fishing vessels of different kinds like 2457 trawlers, 93 gill-netters, 681 FRP and 306 wooden vessels are operating from this fishing harbour presently. Monitoring was carried out at four locations in fishing harbour area and three locations in the Sea. The harbour related activities may affect the quality of coastal waters and its environment, therefore, the studies being undertaken. The project has been entrusted to the Fisheries Research Station, Gujarat Agriculture University, Okha, the detailed study is under progress and it will provide certain remedial measures to keep the fishing harbour and its environment free from pollution threats.

In addition to this load of pollution generated from the operation of boats and vessels, the domestic wastewater generated from the Veraval town is being discharged into the fishing harbour area without collection/treatment and also the effluent generated from the 42 fish processing industries located in the nearby GIDC also being discharged into this fishing harbour area. The industries association of Veraval has commissioned a Common Effluent Treatment Plant with a designed treatment capacity of 5.0 mld to treat the effluent generated from the 42 fish processing industries in Veraval, the approximate effluent generation from these industries are 3.5 mld.

The study indicated that at least 6-7 crew members stay in the vessel and all the domestic wastes generated from the vessel are discharged within the harbour area. Besides, about 5.4 MLD municipal sewage generated from the Veraval town having a population of 1,41,207 (2001 census) also reaches to the harbour area through drains without any treatment. The effluent generated by 42 fish processing industries located in the nearby GIDC is also being discharged into the harbour area. It has been observed that dissolved oxygen content was very less in the winter, which sometimes reaches to nil. Another important observation is that almost during the entire year, except monsoon period, the entire water in the harbour area becomes pinkish due to mixing of effluent from fish processing industries, sewage from the municipality and wastes like Oil and Grease, paints etc. from the fishing vessels. High concentration of petroleum hydrocarbon was observed in the harbour water is mainly due to high traffic of fishing vessels, release of municipal sewage and effluent from fish processing plants and poor flushing of port basin.

Environmental status of coastal aquaculture in India

India is placed fifth in the major aquaculture shrimp (prawn) producers in the world contributing about 8.59% of the total world production (1999). In India almost 59% of the shrimp export is contributed from aquaculture, which clearly indicates that aquaculture has become an integral part of national fisheries and economy. The statistics shows that in 1988-89 the shrimp production through aquaculture was only 28,000 tonnes, which has risen to 1,15,320 tonnes during 2002-2003. The total area under coastal aquaculture in the country is 1,52,080 hectares at present 80000 Ha area is in Maharastra and 376000 Ha area in Gujarat.

The booming of shrimp farming has had both positive and negative implications. On one hand it has made unproductive or marginally productive land into productive and created employment in rural coastal areas and thus improving the overall economic condition of rural people. On the contrary the unplanned and irregulated growth of coastal aquaculture has caused environmental, technical and social issues. The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) has initiated a study on the environmental aspects of coastal aquaculture in the western part of the country covering states of Gujarat and Maharashtra, since the rapidly expanding aquaculture industry has a number of social and environmental side effects, which have been witnessed elsewhere in the world.

The monitoring of aqua farms in both Gujarat and Maharashtra states indicated that the wastewater generated from these aqua farms have been discharged either to the creeks, estuaries or directly into the sea without any treatment, which may result in the contamination of the creeks, estuaries, etc. A large number of farmers have come up in coastal areas by converting agricultural land, salt pans and wetlands, including ecologically sensitive areas. Besides, the effluent discharged during harvesting and pond cleaning has much pollution potential due to release of effluent containing high organic and nutrients loads.

An extensive study was conducted on the pollution potential from aquaculture farms by monitoring 68 ponds from 15 shrimp farms located in Gujarat and Maharashtra. The results indicate that the wastewater discharged during exchange/harvesting periods, some quantity of nutrients like Phosphates, Nitrates etc. are discharged along with into the receiving water body. The effluent discharged during harvesting showed BOD to the range of 80 mg/l, Total Phosphorous 2.5 mg/l, Total Nitrogen 15 mg/l and Total Suspended Solids 752 mg/l.

Case studies on Marine National Park, Gulf of Kutch, Jamnagar, Gujarat

Gulf of Kutch is the longest coastal habitat on the West Coast in Gujarat. The Marine National Park and the Marine Sanctuary are situated in the Gulf of Kutch along the southern shore of Gulf from Okha in vicinity of Khijadia. It includes 42 islands and a complex of fringing reefs, mudflats, coastal salt marshes, sand flats, mangrove forests, sandy and rocky beaches supported by a diversity of fauna and flora. The Gulf of Kutch located on the West Coast of India in Gujarat state possess a variety of marine wealth like mangroves, coral reefs, sea grass & sea weeds, sandy areas, mud flats, and varieties of flora fauna etc.

By considering the importance of the marine wealth and uniqueness of the ecosystem prevailing in the Gulf of Kutch area the Government of Gujarat has initiated an area of 457.92 Sq.km as a Marine sanctuary by notification dated.12.8.1980 and further the area measuring 162.89 Sq.km was declared as Marine National park by notification dated 20.7.1982 and declared as protected area to preserve the marine species. The Marine National Park is very rich in fauna and flora, having coral reefs of 37 varieties comprising hard and soft corals, 70 species of sponges, 150-200 species of fishes, 27 species of prawns, 30 species of crabs, 94 species of water birds,3 species of sea mammals, 78 species of terrestrial birds, 108 species of brown, green & red algae, more than 200 species of molluscs etc.

Gulf of Kutch is an arid zone with scanty rainfall and is having less vegetation. This has resulted in extensive felling of mangroves for firewood and fodder for cattle and camel. Besides, the construction of salt pans has cleared vast areas of mangrove vegetation. Creation of harbours, new ports, ship-breaking yard at Sachana have created adverse impact on overall environment of the Gulf of Kutch. Industrial developments and disposal of treated and untreated effluents to the Gulf area can be a threat to the Gulf environment, for example frequent accidental chemical spills from the industries adjoining the Marine National Park. This area is being affected by the busy port of Vadinar and Kandla and also private jetties, which was constructed in this area. Imported crude and petroleum products are unloaded here and increasing activities like laying of pipelines and other industrial developments around this area are taking place at a faster rate. Frequent accidental chemical spills from the adjoining industries may be the threat to the Marine National Park environment.

The study has been undertaken by the Central Pollution Control Board to assess the overall pollution load and environmental threats to the marine life of the National Park. The project has been entrusted to the Fisheries Research Station (FRS), Gujarat Agriculture University, Okha. The Fisheries Research Station has carried out the monitoring in Marine National Park, around 11 sampling locations have been selected for the assessment of the pollution load in the Park area.

Studies on pollution potential from Fish Processing industries of coastal waters

The fishing industry includes capture fisheries, processing, marketing and conservation of fish and shellfish resources. The demand for food, especially food rich in protein is increasing along with population growth. The fishing industry has increased its annual catch to meet this demand. As fish is a perishable item, it deteriorates immediately after death. To prevent spoiling of fish, several methods or processing technologies have been developed for the last few decades. Since it is an export-oriented industry, it has to achieve the international quality products.

The fish processing industries mostly located in coastal states. Like other industrial processes, the fish processing will also generate waste in the form of liquid waste and solid waste. During fish processing large quantity of water has been utilized, which returns as wastewater. Besides, a phenomenal quantity of solid waste also generated depending on the type of fish processed and the process technology used. These wastes finds their way to the coastal waters through drains, creeks, estuaries etc. The liquid waste mainly consists of organic waste like blood, body fluids etc, and solid waste consists of discarded body organs like head of the fish, fins, scales, gut and intestinal parts etc.

The fish processing is basically of two types - one is whole body process, where the whole fish is being washed and packed without cutting, the second type of fish processing involves processing by way of cutting and removing the head, gut and intestinal parts etc. Both these process generates the wastewater and the same is being discharged into the sea directly or indirectly. In fish processing, water is being used extensively for washing and cleaning purposes. In Gujarat approximately 56 fish processing industries are located at GIDC Veraval, Mangrol, Porbander, Dwaraka, while in Maharashtra, 39 fish processing units are located in MIDC Taloja, Thane, New Mumbai, Ratnagiri areas.

The main objective of the study was to assess the pollution potential from fish processing industries reaching the sea through creeks, rivers etc. The wastewater treatment system provided by the fish processing industries presently involve Collection -›Neutralization -›Aeration -› Discharge into the drain.

The analysis results of treated wastewater reveal that the consented parameters like pH, COD, BOD, SS, O&G are not meeting the prescribed limit despite the fact that the wastewater is treated through above treatment system. The studies carried out to assess the pollution potential from fish processing industries showed the BOD to the tune of 2067 mg/l, Suspended Solids 1300 mg/l and Oil & Grease 19 mg/l. The variations with values of the parameters are mainly due to the type of processing technology used. However, at GIDC Veraval, the Industries Association has already commissioned the Common Effluent Treatment Plant for the treatment of the effluent generated from the fish processing industries. In Navi Mumbai and Thane industrial areas, some of the fish processing industries have taken the member ship of CETPs.

Assessment of Pollution load from land based Activities influencing the coastal marine environment of Gujarat and Maharashtra

The marine ecosystem is considered as most complex and dynamic physical ecosystem existing on the earth. It was estimated that, approximately 60% of the world's population is living within the distance of approximately 60 km from the shoreline. India is having the coastline of about 8118 kilometers covering the littoral states and the union territories. The coastal area accommodates about 25% of country's total population by virtue of its geographical location. The human intervention through the developmental activities like extensive urbanization, industrialization, construction of ports and harbours, development of cities and towns along the coast is drastically changing the coastal dynamics.

All these man made activities are directly or indirectly influencing the water quality coastal waters by way of generating some sort of waste in the form of liquid or solid, which is being discharged into the coastal waters, resulting in drastic change in water quality and depletion of marine productivity etc. The domestic effluent or the municipal wastewater constitutes the largest single source of coastal pollution, followed by the discharges from the industries, ports and harbours etc.

The Central Pollution Control Board has undertaken a study to assess the pollution load from land based activities influencing the coastal marine environment of Gujarat and Maharashtra states by way of collecting the dry data on industrial development, population of the cities and towns, water consumption, waste water generation, treatment systems provided from all the littoral states and union territories. The collected data will be used for the assessment of pollution load received by the sea.

The studies conducted in the littoral states of Gujarat and Maharashtra and Union Territories of Daman & Diu and Dadra & Nagar Haveli indicated that out of 27 metrocities in the country, 4 are located in the coastal areas of Gujarat and Maharashtra. The 19 class-I cities including metrocities having population of 21,342,379 and 15 class-II towns having a population of 993,228 are located in coastal areas of Gujarat and Maharashtra.

The quantity of treated/partially treated/ untreated domestic sewage reaching the coastal waters from these cities and towns is about 3114 MLD. Besides there are about 220 industries including industrial estates discharging their treated/ partially treated/ untreated effluents of various dimensions to the coastal waters of these states. The activities like coastal aquaculture, salt pans, ships building also affect the quality of the coastal waters to some extent.

6.6 ENVIRONMENTAL STATUS IN DIU

Diu is an island having an area of 40 sq km and located on the Sourashtra coast of Gujarat state. It is the part of Union Territory of Daman and Diu. The island is bounded by Junagadh and Amreli Districts of Gujarat in the North and surrounded by the Arabian Sea from three other sides. The Diu island is connected by two bridges with the mainland and lies between the North Longitude of 200 - 44' - 34" and 200 - 42' - 00" and East Longitude of 710 - 52' - 26". The Diu town is located at the east end of the island. The Diu Island called as Diu district occupies an area of about 40 sq. kms, the islands maximum width from extreme North to South measures 4.6 kms from East to West 13.8 kms. The Island has one main town and 5 villages. There are one Municipal Council (B) type and two villages Panchayat.

The main sources of income of the people in Diu are fishing, salt production, tourism etc. Diu is having limited groundwater resources and gets the potable water through pipeline from outside Diu i.e from Raval dam constructed on Raval River in Gujarat. The available ground water is mainly used for domestic purposes (except for drinking) and for irrigation, which has a TDS, ranging from 579 to 10,492 mg/l. In Diu there is no piped sewerage system however soakpit latrines are provided.

The industrialization in Diu is comparatively less, most of the industries are in small-scale sector and have been closed at present. The industrialization of Diu started in 1971 with 17 units and in 1981 it has increased to 103 industries, most of the industries are located in Malala and some are scattered in Bucharwada, Vanakbara etc. The industries in Diu comprises Oil, Ice & Soda, Engineering, Distilleries, Salt manufacturers, floor & Rice mills etc. As observed during the monitoring, most of the industries in Diu are not under operation due to the prevailing market condition. The monitoring was carried out for ambient air (4 locations), noise (4 locations), groundwater (9 locations) and Seawater (4 locations at beaches). Most of the pollution parameters of noise, air and water were found well within the limit except TDS in groundwater.

The Municipal solid waste is managed through collection and dumping near the seashore which is not scientifically managed presently. The air pollution in Diu is mainly from automobiles like chhakdas (a type of three wheeler), auto rickshaws and minibuses.

The ambient air quality monitoring was conducted at three locations (Vanakbara, Malala Industrial Estate, Central Bus Depot) for the parameters SO2, NOX, SPM, RSPM and Lead. The RSPM ranged between 31 mg /m3 to 159 mg /m3, SPM 23.75 mg /m3 to 593.9 mg /m3, NOX 7.6 mg /m3 to 24.8m mg /m3, while sulphur dioxide remained well below the detection limit all the time. Ground water samples were collected from different locations and analyzed for physico chemical parameters, which has high TDS, ranging between 579 to 10,492 mg/l. During the monitoring the RSPM value ranged from 3.22 to 170 µg/m3. Maximum NOx content in the air recorded was 24.8 µg/m3.

6.7 WATER QUALITY MONITORING IN GODAVARI RIVER DURING KUMBH MELA AT NASHIK

The objective of the study was to assess the water quality of the river during Kumbh Mela. Nashik is a holy place, where Kumbh Mela occurs once in twelve years. Around 20 lakh pilgrims take holy bath within river Godavari in a short span of one month. Godavari River originates from Trimbkeshwar. The dam, holy Ram-kund and Tapovan are located in down stream of Trimbkeshwar. Team from Zonal Office of CPCB carried out monitoring at Trambkeshwar, u/s and d/s of Ram-kund, u/s Tapovan and at the d/s of the discharge point of sewage treatment plant of Nashik. As an impact of bathing activity during Kumbh, slight increase in TDS, Total Hardness, Sulphate, Phosphate and Turbidity observed in samples collected from downstream. Concentration of BOD, COD and DO have been found well within the bathing standards at all locations because of high flow in the river.

6.8 DOD SPONSORED PROJECT UNDER COMAPS "LAND BASED SOURCES OF POLLUTION TO THE COASTAL WATERS OF GUJARAT, MAHARASHTRA AND UT OF DAMAN, DIU & DADRA NAGAR HAVELI

The main objective of the project is to assess the land based source of pollution to the coastal water by way of inventorization of sources like industries, municipalities and monitoring of single source and significant discharges which are influencing the coastal water quality. Questionnaires were prepared and circulated among the concerned organizations, agencies, industries, aquaculture farms, municipalities etc. for the collection of information/dry data on following coastal activities:

· Industries and industrial estate

· Municipal sewage disposal

· Municipal solid waste disposal

· Coastal Aquaculture

· Fishing Harbours

· Salt pans

· Ports and Harbours

· Ship breaking yards

· Ship building yards

· Fish processing Industries

Dry information collection from industries and municipalities located in the coastal areas of Gujarat and Maharashtra and UTs of Daman, Diu, Dadra Nagar Haveli and Silvassa is in progress. The details of industries, municipalities from where the information being compiled is presented in Table 6.8.

Table 6.8 Details if Industries and Municipalities
Gujarat 

Sl.

No.

Industries/ industrial estates

Sl.

No.

Municipalities

01

Saurashtra Chem. Ltd; Porbandar

01

Mnagrol Nagar Palika, Junagaadh

02

GSFC, Sikka, Jamnaagar

02

Navsari Nagar Palika, Navsari

03

Gujarat Heavy Chem. Ltd, Satrapada

03

Khambhat Nagar Palika, Khambhat

04

Tata Chem. Ltd, Mithapur, Jamnagar

04

Bharuch Municipality, Bharuch

05

GEB. Lakhpat, Kutch

05

Jamnagar Municipal Corporation, Jamnagar

06

UPL Unit-1, Ankleshwar

06

Surat Municipal Corporation, Surat

07

UPL Unit-2, Ankleshwar

07

Gandhidham Municipality, Gandhidham

08

UPL Unit-5, Bharuch

  

09

KRIBHCO, Surat

 

10

Gujarat Alkalies and Chemical Ltd; Vadodara

 

11

Gujarat Alkalies and Chemical Ltd; Dahej, Bharuch

 

12

Gujarat Gas Company Ltd, Adajan, Surat

  

13

Indian Rayon and Industries Ltd, Veraval

 

14

Sachna Ship Breaking Yard

 

15

Atul Limited, Valsad

 

16

Gujarat Electricity Board, Sikka

 

17

Century Chemicals, Jamnagar

 

18

Indian Farmer Fertilizer Ltd, Kandla, Kutch

 

19

KLJ Polymers and Chem. Ltd, Nani Daman

 

20

Panoli Enviro Technology Ltd, GIDC, Panoli

 

21

Environ Technology Ltd, GIDC, Ankleshwar

 

22

Gujarat Maritime Board, Alang Ship Braking Yard, Bhavnagar

 

23

Saurashtra Cement Ltd, Ranavav, Gujarat

 

24

Ambuja Cement, Kodinar

 

25

Shree Digvijay Cement, Sikka

 

 

Maharashtra 

Sl.

No.

Industries/ industrial estates

Sl.

No.

Municipalities

01

Finolex India Ltd, Ratnagiri

01

Kalyan-Dombivali Municipal Corporation

02

Clariant (India) Ltd, Thane

02

Ratnagiri Municipal Corporation

03

Excel India Ltd, Ratnagiri

03

Mumbai Municipal Corporation

04

USV Ltd, Lote, Ratnagiri

 

05

NRC Ltd, Kalyan, Thane

 

06

S.R. Drugs Pvt. Ltd, Lote Ratnagiri

 

07

Indian Oxalate Ltd, Lote Ratnagiri

 

08

Kesar Petro-Products Ltd, Lote, Ratnagiri

 

09

Oxides and Specialities Ltd, Lote Parshuram, Ratnagiri

 

10

Vashisthi Detergent Ltd. Lote Parshuram, Ratnagiri

 

11

Gharda Chemical, Lote Parshuram, Ratnagiri

 

12

Goodlas Nerolac Paints Ltd, Lote, Ratnagiri

 

13

Amines and Plasticisers Ltd

 

14

DE-NOCIL Crop. Prot. Pvt. Lote, Ratnagiri

 

15

Century Rayon, Shahad, Thane

 

16

Apar Industries Ltd, Trombay Mumbai

 

17

IPCl Raigad

 

18

Navin Ltd, Shahad, Kalyan

 

19

Indofil Chemicals Company

 

20

Gharda Chemicals Ltd

  


Union Territories

Sl.

No.

Industries/ industrial estates

Sl.

No.

Municipalities

01

KLJ Polymers and Chem Ltd. Nani Daman

01

Daman Municipal Council


6.9 AIR QUALITY AT TRAFFIC INTERSECTION

Ranchi (Jharkhand)

Ambient air quality monitoring at nine major traffic intersection in Ranchi (Jharkhand) is being carried out in association with Jharkhand State Pollution Control Board in two phases covering two seasons - pre-winter and winter. The pre-winter monitoring has been completed during October 2003. The winter monitoring has been completed in first week of February, 2004. The monitoring was carried out on 24-hourly average basis at nine major traffic intersections covering entire Ranchi City Area. Data are presented in Table 6.9.

Table 6.9 Ambient Air Quality at Selected Traffic Intersections in Ranchi

Sl.

No.

Monitoring Station

SPM

RSPM

SOx

NOx

Respirable Particulate Lead

1

Firayalal

234

185

24.3

225.7

0.100

2

Lalpur

810

295

10.0

199.7

0.077

3

Kanta Toli

899

357

67.5

348.3

0.230

4

Ratu Chowk

429

231

8.0

174.0

0.090

5

Piska More

1105

271

15.0

145.7

0.060

6

Booty More

1046

268

30.0

123.3

0.253

7

Argora Chowk

716

246

6.0

42.7

0.280

8

Birsa Chowk

805

190

4.5

105.7

0.580

9

Rajendra Chowk

343

197

9.0

68.0

0.227

All values are in g/m3

Kolkata

The monitoring was conducted at 15 traffic intersections spread across Kolkata city to assess the ambient air quality and traffic characteristics. Air pollutants such as Respirable Dust, NO2, SO2 and PAH were measured and total incoming traffic was enumerated for each category of vehicles. The results obtained indicate there was large seasonal variation in air pollutants with peak concentration in winter. Concentration of NO2, Respirable Dust, CO, VOC and PAH are of major concern due to increase in vehicular traffic. Concentration of PAH was found 31 ng/m3 for six compounds of which, the average concentration of highly carcinogenic compound Benzo(a)Pyrene was found 8.5 ng/m3. The composition of traffic at Kolkata indicates 55% vehicles are diesel driven, majority of them are of public transport. Among petrol driven vehicles, private cars dominate with 23% of total vehicles followed by 2-wheelers (16% of total vehicles) and 3-wheeler autos.


Table 6.10 Air Quality at Traffic Intersections in Kolkata in different seasons

NO2 in micrograms per cubic meter

RSPM in micrograms per cubic meter

PM10microns in micrograms per cubic meter

Traffic Intersection

Summer

2000

Winter

2001

Pre-monsoon

2003

Summer

2000

Winter

2001

Pre-monsoon

2003

Summer

2000

Winter

2001

Pre-monsoon

2003

Tollygung

67

163

78

198

518

129

688

1753

456

Hazra

49

101

68

124

288

182

651

652

553

Khidirpur

45

177

101

175

417

119

911

1126

502

Behala

43

132

83

74

437

139

495

977

775

Golpark

40

206

82

119

420

114

324

475

483

Garia

88

128

99

212

326

177

1045

823

744

Park Circus

37

68

97

144

264

76

687

386

234

Science City

26

109

88

52

224

47

312

562

189

Esplanade

34

100

95

104

248

78

389

596

237

Shyam Bagzar

73

95

105

177

335

151

879

509

516

Moulali

63

137

99

228

291

198

611

635

799

Ulta Danga

54

101

93

108

348

116

173

666

265

Cossipur

69

140

85

256

403

154

773

1193

546

Rabindra Sadan

-

157

81

-

335

221

-

491

784

Howrah Bridge

-

192

77

-

443

255

-

442

525

Average

53

134

89

152

353

144

611

752

507

 

Table 6.11 PAH levels at Traffic Intersections in Kolkata City - 2003

 

Sl.No.

 

Traffic Intersection

 

Anthracene

 

Fluoranthene

 

Pyrene

 

Chrysene

Benzo

(e) Pyrene

Benzo (a) Pyrene

1

Behala Chowrasta

18

0.93

17.20

0.17

8.18

11.82

2

Chira More

1.00

1.10

1.64

1.00

1.07

1.00

3

Esplande

NT

1.70

1.32

2.25

2.33

8.34

4

Gariahat

0.90

2.86

2.55

3.44

4.60

13.10

5

Golpark

7.55

7.33

3.75

0.36

9.29

11.60

6

Hazra More

0.80

1.68

1.30

0.60

3.00

6.40

7

Howrah Bridge

2.30

5.10

3.40

29.50

NT

2.25

8

Khidir pur

2.30

3.73

2.00

NT

9.98

10.75

9

Moulali

1.68

2.40

10.72

1.20

3.88

10.73

10

Park circus

0.39

1.35

0.70

NT

7.87

8.97

11

Rabindra Sadan

6.89

9.56

9.25

NT

9.78

13.94

12

Science City

2.76

3.53

2.00

0.61

NT

NT

13

Shyam Bazar

1.9

3.2

8.35

2.81

1.23

7.90

14

Tollygung

0.4

2.2

1.0

1.27

2.30

2.10

15

Ultadanga

16

19.65

18.45

0.64

13.50

18.85

Average

4.19

4.42

5.58

2.92

5.13

8.52

Note: All the values are in nanograms per cubic meter; NT: Not traceable

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